University of Khartoum

Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Obesity: The Role of Eating Habits, Hypoxia, Gastrointestinal and Adiposity Hormones in Adult Sudanese Males

Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Obesity: The Role of Eating Habits, Hypoxia, Gastrointestinal and Adiposity Hormones in Adult Sudanese Males

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Title: Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Obesity: The Role of Eating Habits, Hypoxia, Gastrointestinal and Adiposity Hormones in Adult Sudanese Males
Author: Mahmoud, Osman Saeed Osman
Abstract: Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become an important health problem with life style changes in modern societies and growing obesity epidemic. Despite the clinical recognition of NAFLD, there exists uncertainty as to the constellation of metabolic, hormonal, and behavioral phenotypes that characterize those at risk individuals. This study aimed to determine the role of the psychological factors affecting eating behavior, hypoxia, gastrointestinal and adiposity hormones in the development of NAFLD in obesity. Materials & methods: This is a cross sectional case control study that included 302 adult male Sudanese participants, divided into 93 healthy normal weight individuals without NAFLD used as control group, and 209 overweight or obese with NAFLD used as the case group. The age of the participants ranged between 18 and 55 years. Ultrasound was used as the main diagnostic tool for NAFLD and the results were interpreted in the context of other findings of the patient's examination. Data were obtained from questionnaires, anthropometric measurements, psychometric tests and laboratory investigations. Statistical analysis was performed using descriptive statistics, Student’s T test, bivariate correlational analysis and logistic regression analysis.XI Results: The results revealed that psychological eating behavior characteristics including restraint eating and uncontrolled eating were significantly positively correlated with NAFLD, r=.393, p < .05, r= .223, p < .05, respectively, while emotional eating showed insignificant correlation with NAFLD. The results for hypoxia markers revealed that pulse rate, lactate, lactate/pyruvate ratio and HIF-1α were significantly positively correlated with NAFLD, r= .448, p < 0.05, r= .281, p < .05, r= .272, p < .05, r= 350, p < .05, respectively, while the percentage saturation of hemoglobin with oxygen and pyruvate r= -.155, p < .05, r= -.228, p < .05, respectively. PCV and LDH showed insignificant correlation with NAFLD. The associations of gastrointestinal and adiposity hormones with NAFLD revealed that ghrelin and insulin were significantly positively correlated with NAFLD r = .211, p <.05, r = .446, p < 0.5, respectively. GLP-1 and leptin were significantly negatively correlated with NAFLD, r = -.551, < 0.5, r = -.453, p <.05, respectively, while CCK showed statistically insignificant correlation. Furthermore, the results of logistic regression analysis models confirmed that high restraint eating, high HIF-1α, high insulin, low GLP-1 and low leptin were independent risk factors for NAFLD in this study. Conclusion: The results of this study provide conclusive evidence that psychological factors affecting eating behaviors especially restraint eating is important in overeating tendency leading to metabolic disturbances and subsequent NAFLD development. The results alsoXII proved that hypoxia, and adiposity and gastrointestinal hormones are associated with the axis that link insulin insensitivity, visceral obesity and liver fat deposition as indicated from the correlations of hypoxia markers and adiposity and gastrointestinal hormones with NAFLD in this study and this is confirmed from the results of logistic regression analysis.
URI: http://khartoumspace.uofk.edu/123456789/27063


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