University of Khartoum

Characterization of Sudanese Native Chicken Breeds with a View to its Utilization and Conservation

Characterization of Sudanese Native Chicken Breeds with a View to its Utilization and Conservation

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Title: Characterization of Sudanese Native Chicken Breeds with a View to its Utilization and Conservation
Author: Hasballah, Mohyeldein Adam Berima
Abstract: Abstract: The goals of this study were to characterize the Sudanese native chicken breeds and its production systems and to identify genetic polymorphisms within chicken prolactin (cPRL) and growth hormone (cGH) genes and their associations with some economic traits. The study was carried out in two main phases: Phase one was designed for field work, while phase two was for Molecular work. The field survey was conducted in Kordofan, Blue Nile and Gadaref regions. A structured pre-tested questionnaire was administered to respondent households (N=209). The SPSS statistical software was used to obtain descriptive statistics, while ANOVA and Duncan Multiple Range Test were applied for comparing and separating means among the surveyed regions, respectively. Additionally, POPGENE (V 1.131) was used to calculate genotypic and allelic frequencies, while Marker-traits association analysis was done using GLM procedure of SAS. The Sudanese native chickens were predominantly raised under the traditional extensive production system 98.4%. Among other livestock species chickens, however, showed the lowest ranking priority by respondents. Women have the highest contribution regarding chicken ownership, management and decision making. The flock structure consisted of 39% chicks, 20.5% pullets, 15.9% cockerels, 18% hens and 6.6% cocks, whereas the flock size and the cock: hen ratio ranged from 25.4 to 37.0 and 1: 2.24 to 1: 3.34, respectively. The average egg number per clutch and the average effective population size were 11.56 and 6.06receptively; with the subsequent average inbreeding coefficient was 0.083. Meat provision and cash generating through selling eggs and live birds were the main purposes of keep native chicken, therefore, were targeted as breeding objectives. Moreover, body size and plumage color were the most important factors affecting breeding choices of theXVI breed, while the reproductive performance and fast growth rate were the most preferred traits. Besides, body size and health status were used as criteria for culling both hens and cocks; In particular, feather color in cocks and mothering ability in hens were also considered. According to famers' quality traits grading, the morphological, reproductive and meat taste aspects also received high grades. Newcastle disease, predators, lack of veterinary services and health care were considered to be the major constraints for native chicken keeping. The polymorphisms within cPRL 24 bp indel (Insertion/ deletion) at position -358, (C-2402T) SNP and cGH intron 4 were undertaken with PCR-RFLP technique using AluI and SacI restriction enzymes, respectively. Blood samples were collected from large beladi ecotype generation four (selected population) on filter cards (FTA). The numbers of samples used were 122, 124 and 136 for cPRL24 bp indel, C-2402T site and cGH intron 4, respectively. Genomic DNA was extracted using modified phenol-chloroform method protocol. The loci genotyped were polymorphic and all possible genotypes were observed. Chi-square test showed deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). Regarding cPRL, a 24 bp indel at nucleotide position -358 was identified. The frequency of I and D alleles were 0.79 and 0.21, respectively, and the frequencies of II, ID and DD genotypes were 0.62, 0.33 and 0.05, respectively. Genotypes II and DD were significantly (P<0.05) associated with increase in chick’s body weight at hatch (BWH).The nucleotide substitution of cytosine to thymine (C2402T) SNP resulted in three genotypes with of CC (0.62), CT (0.36), and TT (0.02); while C and T alleles showed frequencies of 0.80 and 0.20, respectively. The genotype CC was significantly (P<0.05) associated with the increase in chick’s body weight at two and six weeks of age. Typing cGH intron 4 showed two alleles A and B with frequencies ofXVII 0.60 and 0.40, respectively and their genotypes AA, AB, and BB with frequencies of 0.62, 0.33 and 0.05, respectively. No significant associations (P> 0.05) were obtained for different genotypes with body weight and egg production traits. In conclusion, the results obtained in current study showed that cPRL polymorphism could be used as genetic markers of body weight in selected large beladi chicken. The utilization and conservation of the native chickens in Sudan entail thorough application of both conventional and non-conventional breeding methods, concomitantly with the improvement of managerial practices and the availability of sufficient and balanced ration in the rural areas.
URI: http://khartoumspace.uofk.edu/123456789/27071


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