University of Khartoum

Notes on distribution of Simulium damnosum s. l. along Atbara River in Galabat sub-focus, eastern Sudan

Notes on distribution of Simulium damnosum s. l. along Atbara River in Galabat sub-focus, eastern Sudan

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Title: Notes on distribution of Simulium damnosum s. l. along Atbara River in Galabat sub-focus, eastern Sudan
Author: Zarroug, Isam M. A.; Elaagip, Arwa; Gumaa, Suhaib G.; Ali, Altayeb K.; Ahmed, Ayman; Siam, Hanaa A. M.; Abdelgadir, Deena M.; Surakat, Olabanji A.; Olamiju, Olatunwa J.; Boakye, Daniel A.; Aziz, Nabil; Hashim, Kamal
Abstract: Background: Onchocerciasis is caused by a nematode worm Onchocerca volvulus, which is transmitted in Sudan by black fly vectors of the Simulium damnosum sensu lato species complex. In Sudan, the disease is found in four foci where fast flowing rivers provide suitable breeding sites for the Simulium vector flies. The construction of dams and irrigation schemes for agricultural purposes has affected black fly breeding and distribution, such as in Merowe Dam in Abu-Hamed focus, where the perennially flowing water downstream of the Dam created new vector breeding sites, thereby, changing the pattern of disease transmission and creating public health problems. Based on this situation, this study was carried out to measure the effect of the Upper Atbara and Setit Dam complex on the distribution of Simulium damnosum s.l. breeding sites and on disease elimination in the Galabat sub-focus in eastern Sudan. Methods: Aquatic stages of Simulium were collected between October and November 2009, prior to the construction of the dam complex, and again in 2013 and 2015 while the dam complex construction was ongoing. Results: A total of 40 breeding sites were identified at the beginning of the study. After the construction of the dam complex in 2015, seventeen previously mapped breeding sites were inaccessible as they had been flooded by the dam complex’s lake when reach its maximum size. Three species were obtained from different locations: S. damnosum s.l., S. griseicolle, and S. adersi. Conclusions: This study has shown a link between the construction of the dam complex and a reduction in the breeding sites of black fly vectors. This reduction has limited the Galabat sub-focus to a small area at the upper Atbara River which become the end of the focus. To sustain the success achieved in onchocerciasis control in the Galabat sub-focus, disease control and its vector control should be strengthened in the area cross-boarding Sudan and Ethiopia
URI: http://khartoumspace.uofk.edu/123456789/27091


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