University of Khartoum

Effect of Supplementing Nigella sativa Seeds to Aflatoxin Contaminated Diet on Performance and Physiological Responses of Male Nubian Goat Kids

Effect of Supplementing Nigella sativa Seeds to Aflatoxin Contaminated Diet on Performance and Physiological Responses of Male Nubian Goat Kids

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Title: Effect of Supplementing Nigella sativa Seeds to Aflatoxin Contaminated Diet on Performance and Physiological Responses of Male Nubian Goat Kids
Author: Elfaki, Mahmoud Mohamed Osman Ahmed
Abstract: The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of supplementing Nigella sativa (NS) seeds to Aflatoxin (AF) contaminated diet on performance and physiological responses of male Nubian goat kids. The study was carried out at the Department of Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Khartoum (August to October 2017). Twenty healthy male Nubian goat kids (age: 8-9 months, weight: 11±0.5 kg) were divided into five equal groups (4 each). Five isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets were formulated according to the standard nutrient requirement for goats. The control group was fed basal diet composed of traditional ingredients: crushed sorghum grains, groundnut cake, wheat bran, groundnut hull, salt and limestone. The treated groups fed basal diet contaminated with 150ppb AF only (AF+NS-0) or AF contaminated diet supplemented with different level of crushed NS seeds: 2% (AF+NS-2), 4% (AF+NS-4) and 6% (AF+NS-6). Aflatoxin contaminated diet was prepared using natural infected groundnuts cake and was mixed with other ration ingredients in various proportions to formulate treated diets. The concentration of AF in the diet was determined using high performance liquid chromatography. Feed intake was measured daily while body weight was recorded weekly. Jugular venous blood samples and rumen liquor samples were collected at the end of the experimental period on day 40. Blood and serum samples were used to determine blood pH, glucose level, haematological and biochemical parameters. Digestibility and nitrogen balance trials were performed after 6 weeks at the end of feeding trial on day 43 using the same animals and the trials extended 2 weeks. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS (version 20). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) test was used to assess the significant differences among the treatments. Linear regression was performed to explain the relationship between NS levels and investigated parameters. Nutritional performance: dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and protein efficiency XII ratio (PER) were depressed (P≤0.05) by AF contaminated diet only. Supplementing NS seeds to AF contaminated diet significantly (P≤0.01) improved ADG, FCR and increased PER. Haemoglobin concentration (Hb), total erythrocytes count (TEC) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) were significantly (P≤0.05) decreased by AF contaminated diet only, whereas total leukocytes count (TLC) increased (P≤0.01). Supplementing NS seeds to AF contaminated diet significantly (P≤0.05) increased Hb and TEC. No significant differences (P>0.05) were observed in blood pH, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, glucose level, albumin, urea, creatinine, serum electrolytes (Na+, K+ and Cl-), strong ion difference (SID3), rumen pH and rumen ammonia nitrogen among the groups. Serum total protein (TP) and globulins (GB) were significantly (P≤0.01) decreased by AF contaminated diet only. Supplementing 6% NS seeds caused a significant (P≤0.05) increase in TP and GB. Lipid profile (total lipids, triglycerides, cholesterol, high density lipoprotein and low density lipoprotein) and serum liver enzymes (AST, ALT, ALP and GGT) were significantly (P≤0.05) increased by AF contaminated diet only. Supplementing NS seeds to AF contaminated diet caused a decrease (P≤0.05) in lipid profile and serum liver enzymes. Rumen volatile fatty acids, protozoa count, nutrients digestibility and nitrogen retention were significantly (P≤0.05) depressed by AF contaminated diet only. Supplementing NS seeds to AF contaminated diet had positive effects on rumen ecology and improved digestibility and nitrogen retention. Supplementing NS seeds to AF contaminated diet resulted in a good growth performance and improved physiological status; the superior effect to AF contaminated diet supplemented with 6% NS seeds. The study recommended supplementing 6% NS seeds to goat diets to reduce suspected AF contamination. Further investigations are needed to assess protective effect of NS seeds in other animal species fed on AF contaminated diets.
Description: 135 Pages
URI: http://khartoumspace.uofk.edu/123456789/27395
Date: 2018-04


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