University of Khartoum

Characterization and Performance Analysis of Photovoltaic Systems under Extreme Weather Conditions

Characterization and Performance Analysis of Photovoltaic Systems under Extreme Weather Conditions

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Title: Characterization and Performance Analysis of Photovoltaic Systems under Extreme Weather Conditions
Author: Younis, Abubaker Ali Mahmoud
Abstract: The objective of this research is to study the performance and interaction of different photovoltaic (PV) systems of choice (Crystalline silicon PV and Photovoltaic-thermal hybrid solar collector (PV/T)) operating in arid climates from engineering point of view. PV is the direct conversion of light into electricity at the atomic level. The major advantage of PV as an energy source is the pollution and greenhouse gas emission free operation, but always coupled with the significant fluctuation and drop in performance because of the impact of climatic factors. Theoretically, the output power of a crystalline solar cell decreases by 0.4–0.5% when the temperature increase is equal to 1℃ above the nominal operating cell temperature (NOCT) which is very frequently reported by the manufacturer in a range between 45℃-48℃. The necessity to provide more accurate mathematical solution algorithms to help characterizing PV’s electrical performance is urged by multiplication of solution error tolerance. This elevated error is due to approximations made to enable the numerical solution of the complicated representative mathematical model that satisfies the extreme conditions (high ambient temperatures and solar irradiances) encountered by PV systems when operating under arid hot environments. Then, the described research problem has been studied and a simple, yet accurate solution approach has been proposed and validated. The accumulating dust on top of PV panels has been given special attention as dust is a strongly present environmental parameter that affects the performance of PV systems in Sahara and desert climates to which Sudan belongs. Statistical analysis was applied upon experimental data to determine an empirical coefficient that can quantize the effect of soiling on the electrical 7 characteristics of PV modules. The obtained coefficient 0.0242 A/g is a mean value that represents reduction in the short circuit current at different temperatures for the PV module under study. For suitability assessment of nanofluids as heat transfer medium in the PV/T hybrid solar collectors as an alternative option, the effect of Al2O3-ZnO-H2O nanofluid on the PV/T system was monitored and analyzed. Although the results showed an increase in the total efficiency of the system after using the nanofluid by an average increment of 4.1%, a general trend of decrease in the nanofluid positive effect was observed in accordance with ambient temperature increase. The current thesis summarized solar PV performance analysis from engineering point of view. Research concerning the long-term reliability and degradation due to changes in Solar PV chemical structure is recommended, always because of the location-wise performance dependency.
Description: 138 Pages
URI: http://khartoumspace.uofk.edu/123456789/27396
Date: 2018-12


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