University of Khartoum

Autoimmune Bullous Diseases and their Oral Manifestations: A Hospital-based Study in the period 2001 to 2016

Autoimmune Bullous Diseases and their Oral Manifestations: A Hospital-based Study in the period 2001 to 2016

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Title: Autoimmune Bullous Diseases and their Oral Manifestations: A Hospital-based Study in the period 2001 to 2016
Author: Siddig, Omayma Hassan Bashir
Abstract: Background: Autoimmune bullous diseases result from autoimmune reaction to the epidermal attachment molecules. They are classified depending on the clinical criteria, the level of blistering, type of autoantibody and the targeted autoantigens. These diseases affect the skin, oral mucosa and other mucosal surfaces. They are associated with great morbidity and mortality. Clinicoepidemiological data about them and the associated oral lesions were lacking in the Sudan. The aim of this research was to study the Autoimmune Bullous Diseases and their oral manifestations in Khartoum State in the period from 2001 to 2016. Methods: A descriptive, analytical, retrospective, hospital-based was carried out. Records of patients who were admitted to Khartoum Dermatological Venereal Diseases Teaching Hospital during the study period were reviewed. Data were managed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences® version 17. Tests of correlation were appropriately applied and a p value ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Out of the 4736 patients who were admitted to Khartoum Dermatological and Venereal Diseases Hospital during the study period, 12.5% had Autoimmune Bullous Diseases. The male-to-female ratio was 1:1.6 and their mean age was 4522 years. Pemphigus Vulgaris was the most common disease (50.9%) followed by Bullous Pemphigoid (28.2%), Linear IgA Disease/ Chronic Bullous Disease of the Childhood (8.4%) and Pemphigus Foliaceous (8.2%). Pemphigoid Gestationis and Immunoglobulin A Pemphigus constituted 1.4% and 1.2% of the series, respectively. Paraneoplastic Pemphigus, Mucous Membrane Pemphigoid, Lichen Planus Pemphigoidis, Bullous Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Dermatitis Herpetiformis were not common. None of the patients had Epidermolysis Bullosa Acquisita. A strong association was found between the oral mucosal involvement and the type of the disease with a p-value < 0.05. Oral involvement was found in 84.4% of Pemphigus Vulgaris patients. In contrast, oral mucosa was involved in only 8.3%, 23.2% and 29.8% of patients with Bullous Pemphigoid, Pemphigus Foliaceous and Linear IgA Disease/ Chronic Bullous Disease of the Childhood, respectively. When both skin and oral mucosa were involved, 60.7% of the cases presented firstly with oral lesions. Oral lesions occurred mostly on the buccal mucosa (30.9%) and any intraoral site could be affected. Conclusion: Autoimmune Bullous Diseases are not infrequent in the Sudan when compared to other countries. Pemphigus Vulgaris, Bullous Pemphigoid, Pemphigus Foliaceous and Linear IgA Disease/ Chronic Bullous Disease of the Childhood are the most common Autoimmune Bullous Diseases in the Sudan. Oral mucosa involvement is associated with the disease type.
URI: http://khartoumspace.uofk.edu/123456789/27592


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