University of Khartoum

Molecular and morphological identification of suspected Plasmodium vivax vectors in Central and Eastern Sudan

Molecular and morphological identification of suspected Plasmodium vivax vectors in Central and Eastern Sudan

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Title: Molecular and morphological identification of suspected Plasmodium vivax vectors in Central and Eastern Sudan
Author: Abdelwhab, Omnia Fathelrhman; Elaagip, Arwa; Albsheer, Musab M.; Ahmed, Ayman; Paganotti, Giacomo Maria; Abdel Hamid, Muzamil Mahdi
Abstract: Background: In spite of the global effort to eliminate malaria, it remains the most significant vectorborne disease of humans. Plasmodium falciparum remains the dominant malaria parasite in SubSaharan Africa. However, P. vivax is becoming widely spread throughout Africa. The overuse of vector control methods has resulted in a remarkable change in the behaviour of mosquito that feeds on human as well as on vector composition. The aim of this study was to identify Anopheles mosquito species in vivax malaria endemic regions and to investigate their role in P. vivax malaria transmission. Methods: Mosquito samples were collected from Central Sudan (Khartoum and Sennar States) and Eastern Sudan (New Halfa) using Pyrethrum Spray Catch (PSC) and CDC light traps. Mosquitoes were identified using appropriate morphological identification keys and Anopheles gambiae complex were confirmed to species level using molecular analysis. A subset of blood-fed anopheline mosquitoes were dissectedto study the presence of natural infection of malaria parasites. In addition, the rest of the blood-fed samples were investigated for presence of infective sporozoites of P. vivax that detecting the P. vivax circumsporozoite protein (pvcsp) gene using nested-PCR. Results: A total of 644 adult anopheline blood-fed mosquitoes were collected from New Halfa (N = 214 mosquitoes), Khartoum (N = 132 mosquitoes), and Sennar (N = 298 mosquitoes). Morphological and molecular identification of the collected mosquitoes revealed the presence of An. arabiensis, An. funestus, and An. pharoensis. Out of 644 anophelines subjected to P. vivax sporozoite detection (N = 40, 6.2%) were positive for P. vivax.An. arabiensis 6.7% (39/583) and An. pharoensis 1.8% (1/56) were found positive for the parasite. While An. funestus was detected for the first time in New Halfa with low abundance (5/214 mosquitoes) and were found negative for the parasite. Conclusion: This study documented the presence of An. funestus for the first time in New Halfa, Eastern Sudan. However, An. arabiensis is the most abundant vector detected, together with An. pharoensis. This findings suggests change in malaria epidemiology. Further studies are needed to investigate their contribution in malaria transmission.
URI: http://khartoumspace.uofk.edu/123456789/27928


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