University of Khartoum

STORM WATER QUALITY AN D POLLUTANTS SURFACE- ACCUMULATION RATES IN KHARTOUM

STORM WATER QUALITY AN D POLLUTANTS SURFACE- ACCUMULATION RATES IN KHARTOUM

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Title: STORM WATER QUALITY AN D POLLUTANTS SURFACE- ACCUMULATION RATES IN KHARTOUM
Author: I. Ahmed, M. Elmuntasir; Fikri Digna, Reem
Abstract: The results of monitoring storm wate r quality at twenty seven locations distributed spatially over t he Khartoum state during four rainfall events in August and September of 2006 are pr esented. The storm water quality data were used to calculate pollutants surface accumu lation rates and a correlation of storm water runoff pollution characterist ics with the envir onmental management practices in the Khartoum area is discussed. The sampling locations represented various land uses such as residential, co mmercial, agricultural, industrial, and open rural areas and mean concentrations were calculated for the rainy season Aug-Oct 2006. Weighted m ean concentrations of 33 ,,,, B OD COD NO TP NH − for the state were found to be in the order of 45.8, 854.3, 33.5, 2.9, 14.1 mg/l respectively. The BOD and COD weighted mean concentrations for residential and commercial land uses in Khartoum 46.8, 511.9 58.8, 1368.8 and mg/l far exceeded the U.S. National Urban Runoff Program (NURP) mean EMC values of 10.0, 73.0 9.3, 57.0 and mg/l respectively i ndicating requirement for environmental management and quality c ontrol of the urban runoff from Khartoum state. The aver age pollutants concentrations were found to decrease with the order of rainfall event during the year, decrease with increased rainfal Sudan En g ineerin g Societ y JOURNAL , September 2007, Volume 53 No.49 46 amount, and increase with increased durati on between events. The first flush effect was observed, however, over 90% of pollutants are wa shed by September rain and good environmental management and control practices should focus on this month. A model was developed to estimate equilibrium pollutant surface coverage and pollutants accumulation rate s in Khartoum state. Equilibrium pollutant surface cove rage were found to be 110.7, 4400.5, 23.8, 0.7, 13.4 g/km 2 and the pollutants accumulation rates were found to be 5.4, 161.9, 1.6, 0.06, 0.8 g/km 2 d for 33 ,,,, B OD COD NO TP NH − respectively. The high COD mean weighted concentrations, equilibrium surface cover age, and accumulation rate indicate the high amount of pollution enc ountered from the use of industrial products and other refractory organics from all sources.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/6632
Date: 2007-09


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