Annual Conference of Postgraduate Studies and Scientific Research-February. 2014

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    Role of Rural Women in Natural Resources Management in South Kordofan State
    (University of Khartoum, 2014) Deafalla, Taisser
    The issue of gender mainstreaming has become a major concern over the past years in Sudan, where the country is weak in strategies, policies and legal frameworks that support the women's rights. Despite that, woman plays a key role in rural areas that depend on non-wood forest products (NWFPs) through responsibilities in decision making, meetings, extension, motivation and outlook within the milieu of natural resources. The objective of this study was to examine the role of women in rural areas in forest management. Data were collected, using semi-structured interviews of household heads, in twenty-two villages. The sample size was three hundred households, distributed among the administrative units of Rashad Locality, South Kordofan State, according to the principle of population proportional to size. Data were summarized using descriptive statistics and cross tabulation. The results are presented in form of percentages, frequencies, tables and pie charts. They revealed a highly significant influence of women's on forest harvesting and processing. More than 58 % of the women were involved in both activities compared with 29% and 12.5% of men in te two activities, respectively. Meanwhile, the majority of them are subsistence poor farmers who suffer scarcity of food supplies and health care. Therefore, they count on NWFPs which provide them with critical subsistence in addition to job opportunity, especially during the dry season when other alternatives are not available. The study recommended more emphasis be laid on the potential role of NWFPs and on the ability of women to participate in public forum and contribute to both rural development and objectives of biodiversity conservation.
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    Effects of Irrigation with Disposed Produced Petroleum Water on the Soil and Plants at Khartoum Refinery, Sudan
    (University of Khartoum, 2014) Makeen, Asma ; Elnour, Mohamed
    This study aimed to assess the effect of irrigation interval with disposed produced petroleum water (DPPW) on the soil and vegetation cover at Khartoum Refinery Company (KRC). Thirty-six soil samples (at depths of 0-30, 30-60 and 60-90 cm) were taken from tree plantation blocks. The treatments were P0 (none irrigated, as a control) and P1 and P2 were irrigated for four and eight years, respectively, and were analyzed for pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), total soluble Na+, Ca++, Mg++ and Cl-. Twenty-one samples of tree leaves were collected from P0, P1 and P2 and analyzed for Na, Ca and Mg. The results showed that at the soil surface (0-30 cm) no differences within and between blocks in pH that was about 7.0 where the CEC of P0 and P2 have lower content compared to P1. Application of the DPPW increased the soluble Na+ of P1 and P2 compared to P0 (2.2, 0.46 and 0.04 Meq/L respectively), and the same trend was shown by soluble Ca++ (74.5, 18 and 2.5), and Mg++ (3.0, 2.5 and1.0). Cl- content increased as irrigation interval increased (4.5, 104.5 and 30.0 Meq/L for P0, P1 and P2, respectively). Systematic decrease of all soil chemical content with depths was shown for P0, P1 and P2. For the plant, there was an increase in Na as irrigation interval increased (50.67, 516.67 and 723.33 for Po, P1 and P2 respectively), whereas Ca and Mg increased in P1 compared to P2 and P0. The risk of accumulation of soluble salts is expected to occur with time, therefore, specific treatments to decrease the salts content of DPPW are crucial.
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    Effect of Gymnarchus niloticus (Weer) Fish Body Weight on Total Body Length, Body Components and Fillet Meat Quality
    (uofk, 2014-02) Ahmed, Ikhlas ; Atta, Omer
    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of Gymnarchus niloticus (Weer) body weight (1, 2 and 3 kg), on body length, body components and flesh quality. Twenty four fishes were used. Fish body measurements, weights of body components, proximate chemical composition, water holding capacity (WHC), cooking loss, shrinkage, oxidative rancidity, total bacterial count and sensory evaluation were determined. Increasing G. niloticus body weight resulted in a significant (P≤0.05) increase of the fish total length and weights of body components but, the internal organs and fins percentage were significantly (P≤0.05) decreased and the skin and fillet percentage increased but not significantly (P>0.05). The light weight (1kg) gave a higher moisture percentage and slightly lower, protein, fat and ash percentages while the heavy groups (2 kg and 3 kg) gave the highest lightness (L*), redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) colour values and protein, fat, ash percentages but lower moisture percentage and improved WHC. Cooking loss and shrinkage percentages were significantly decreased while oxidative rancidity, total bacteria count were significantly (P≤0.05) increased and the sensory evaluation was not significantly different The medium body weight (2 kg) gave the highest panel scores compared with the low and high weights. Gymnarchus niloticus has a good processing characteristics and quality.
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    Wood Density Radial Variation of Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Delile Grown in Sudan
    (University of Khartoum, 2014) Mohamed, Hanadi ; Thomas, Claus
    Wood density is a variable influencing many of the technological and quality properties of wood. Previous studies have shown that wood density is an important indicator for wood end-use as it strongly affects the general quality of most of the wood products. Understanding the radial variation pattern of wood density is important for its end use. The present study was carried out to determine the pattern of wood density radial variation of Balanites aegyptiaca tree species. Thirty healthy trees were chosen randomly from 10 forests distributed in four states in Sudan, namely, Blue Nile, North Kordofan, South Kordofan and White Nile. Two discs of 10 cm thickness were cut from each tree, the first at 10% from the merchantable height and the second at 90%. One strip (includes tree’s pith) was taken from each disc. The wood basic density was determined for five radial portions representing the distance from pith to bark (10%, 30%, 50%, 70% and 90%). The density was measured based on dry weight and green volume. ANOVA was used to test the variation among the five selected radial portions, using SPSS (version 18.0) program. The results revealed that Balanites aegyptiaca wood density follows the increased pattern from pith to bark. The results showed also significant differences among the five selected portions from pith to bark.
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    Effect of Postmortem Aging Period on Quality Properties of Bovine Muscles, Longissimus dorsi, Semimembranosus and Semitendinosus, Held at 2ºC
    (uofk, 2014-02) Ahmed, Ikhlas
    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of postmortem aging period (1, 5, 10, and 15 days) on meat quality of bovine muscles, Longissimus dorsi, Semimembranosus and Semitendinosus, held at 2°C. Fourteen western Baggara bulls were used. The hindquarters were immediately chilled at 2°C for 24 hours, L. dorsi, Semimembranosus and Semitendinosus were cold deboned, each one was divided into four parts and aged immediately after deboning for 1, 5, 10 and 15 days at 2°C. Temperature and pH profile, chemical composition, bacterial load and muscle eating quality were determined. The extractable myofibrillar proteins, the non-protein nitrogen and the water holding capacity were significantly (P≤0.001) increased, while the extractabe sarcoplasmic proteins significantly (P≤0.001) decreased; cooking loss and colour rating scores decreased and tenderness increased numerically with increasing aging period to 15 days. Increasing aging period from 5 to 15 days resulted in low flavour rating and increasd juiciness but nonsignificantly for the three muscles studied. SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed a gradual decrease and disappearance of the troponin-T and a built up of a 30 kd component seems to be the major changes during postmortem aging. Complete disappearance of toponin-T and appearance of a 30 kd component at day 10 of aging and continue to be observed at day 15.