University of Khartoum

Assessment of Oral Health Status and Treatment Needs of 5-Year- Old and 12-Year- Old children in Yemen

Assessment of Oral Health Status and Treatment Needs of 5-Year- Old and 12-Year- Old children in Yemen

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Title: Assessment of Oral Health Status and Treatment Needs of 5-Year- Old and 12-Year- Old children in Yemen
Author: Abdul-Salam, Khalid
Abstract: During the period between the first of April 2003 and the End of October 2005 in six governorates in Yemen (cities and environs) selected according to their geographical location, socioeconomic status, different climates and sizes of population an oral health survey was conducted among Yemeni 5-year-old private kindergarten children in urban areas. The sample consisted of (1292) five year old children in kindergartens and (4104) twelve year old school children in urban, periurban and rural areas. To investigate the prevalence and severity of dental caries, dental treatment needs, gingival health condition in relation to age, gender, area of residency, level of parents education, mottled enamel, Qat chewing habit ; in addition to dental attitude and behavior. WHO (1997) criteria were used to assess the individual tooth health status and treatment needs, Mottled enamel was scored according to the Modified Dean's Index (1942), while for the assessment of periodontal health status, Plaque Index (Silness and Loe, 1964), Gingival Index (Loe and Silness, 1963) and (Loe, 1967) to asses the severity of gingival inflammation) and Calculus Index (Ramfjord, 1959) were applied. Results showed that caries-free subjects constituted about 31.5% (1698 subject) of the total examined subjects (31.9% among deciduous teeth and 27.9% for permanent teeth). The dmft and dmfs values were 2.09 and 4.58, respectively. Boys demonstrated statistically significantly values compared to girls (P<0.05). On the other hand, statistically significant differences were found between the three areas of residency concerning dmfs values (P < 0.05). DMFT and DMFS values were of 2.17 and 3.76, respectively. Girls had higher DMFS means than boys, while the highest DMFT and DMFS means were in urban areas, while the lowest DMFT and DMFS means were found in periurban areas, statistically high significant differences were found between three areas. Occlusal surfaces of the deciduous teeth seemed to be the highest mean of decayed surfaces followed by distal surfaces. Concerning permanent teeth the occlusal surfaces had the highest DS mean followed by lingual surfaces while the mesial surfaces had the lowest DS mean. Regarding the treatment need, 54% of the children and school children were in need of one surface filling followed by 33.6% in need of two or more surface filling and the least percentage 1.9% were in need of crowns. The number of children and school childern with enamel mottling was (2020 subjects), representing 37.4 % of the total sample. The sample in Taiz, Hadramawat and Al-Hodaidah had the highest percentage of enamel mottling, in those three governorates school children in periurban areas had the highest percentage which were 19.7%, 17.6 %, and 13.8%, respectively. The school children who are Qat chewers were (287 school children), representing 5.3% of total sample (5% from males and 0.3% from females). The results of this study showed that the prevalence of gingivitis was high and increased significantly with age. Most of children examined showed mild plaque and gingivitis scores. Only 33.7% of the whole samples were gingivitisfree. Females demonstrated less gingivitis than males with statistically highly significant difference (P < 0.001). The children in rural areas had the highest plaque, gingival and calculus scores, while the lowest plaque gingival and calculus scores were found in periurban areas. Children with mottled enamel had statistically highly significant calculus scores compared to children and school children with normal enamel. The Qat chewers had high significant mean gingival index scores when compared to non Qat chewers (P < 0.001). Results illustrated that the total sample claimed to attend dental clinic regularly (at least once per year) only 1.4 %, the results showed also an association between levels of parents education and high percentage of plaque-free, gingivitis-free and caries-free children and school children. In conclusions, the dental health status among children and school children in Yemen was very bad, stressing on the evaluation of dental facilities, dental services, and content of fluoride ion in the water supplies in order to find sufficient ways to provide the children with primary preventive programmes and proper dental services.
Description: 239 Pages
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/7770
Date: 2015-03-30


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