University of Khartoum

The Prevalence of Human Papilloma (type 16 & 18) and Epstein-Barr viruses in oral squamous cell carcinoma and their association with other risk factors in some Yemeni patients (2009-2012)

The Prevalence of Human Papilloma (type 16 & 18) and Epstein-Barr viruses in oral squamous cell carcinoma and their association with other risk factors in some Yemeni patients (2009-2012)

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Title: The Prevalence of Human Papilloma (type 16 & 18) and Epstein-Barr viruses in oral squamous cell carcinoma and their association with other risk factors in some Yemeni patients (2009-2012)
Author: Thabet Mohsen, Akram
Abstract: Prevalence of Human Papilloma (type 16 & 18) and Epstein-Barr viruses in oral squamous cell carcinoma and their association with other risk factors in some Yemeni patients (2009-2012) Background: It is generally agreed that tobacco and alcohol consumption are the major risk factors for developing oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). However, some patients develop OSCC without exposure to these risk factors. This fact suggests that additional causes, such as oncogenic viruses, may also help cells to develop OSCC. Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of the high-risk human papilloma viruses– types 16 and 18- and Epstein-Barr Virus in some Yemeni patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma and their association with other various risk factors. Material and methods: The study was carried at Sana`a- Al-Thawra Modern General Hospital and Al-Gomhory Teaching Hospital, in the period June 2009 - March 2011.The material of the study consisted of 60 patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma referred for management, and 120 control cases matched for gender and age. Data including demographic variables, chewing qat - the fresh leaves and young shoots of the plant Catha edulis forsks-, smoking tobacco, alcohol drinking and shammah use – a complex smokeless tobacco mixture consisting of powdered tobacco leaf, slaked lime (calcium carbonate), ash, oil and other substances, e.g. black pepper, mint, and flavours - were recorded. The cases were examined for the site and side affected by cancer and each case was clinically staged. Fresh biopsies were taken from the case group, and buccal cells samples were collected by a swish and spit protocol from the controls. For the purpose of comparison, and checking the validity and efficacy of the PCR methodology, five paraffin XV embedded tissue blocks specimens of cervical squamous cell carcinomas were tested using a viral PCR assay. Histological analysis was done for the cancer biopsies. DNA extraction was done for both groups samples. Results: Taqman real-time Polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) was done for examination of type 16 and 18 human papilloma viruses and Epstein-Barr virus . Viral q-PCR assays achieved an excellent linearity (R2>0.99) over a dynamic range of 10 to106 copies allowing determination of as little as 200 viral copies / sample. Neither type 16 nor type 18 of HPV was found in any of the cases or the controls. HPV type 16 and 18 were detected in all the five cases of cervical cancer (100%). EBV was detected in 73.3% and 60.8% of the cases and controls, respectively; and the difference was statistically insignificant. There was no correlation or interaction between the presence of EBV and any demographic or risk factors. Putting all the risk factors as co-variates in a logistic regression model, EBV showed borderline association with oral cancer with an odd ratio of 2.58, Shammah use was found to be the only determinant risk factor for oral cancer with odd ratios of 11.0 and 54.0 for the ex-user and current user, respectively. Surprisingly, ex-smoker emerged as a protective factor. Conclusion: the result of this study showed that: 1/ Neither HPV nor EBV, has a relation with oral squamous cell carcinoma. 2/ There was a strong association between Shammah use and oral cancer.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/7891
Date: 2015-03-31


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