University of Khartoum

Studies on Toxoplasma and Sarcocystis from Camels (Camelus dromedaries) in The Sudan

Studies on Toxoplasma and Sarcocystis from Camels (Camelus dromedaries) in The Sudan

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Title: Studies on Toxoplasma and Sarcocystis from Camels (Camelus dromedaries) in The Sudan
Author: Yousif, Manal
Abstract: In this study Toxoplasma gondii antibodies were detected in six locations of camels in the Sudan, using latex agglutination test. The overall prevalence was 61.7%; 68% in El Gedarif, 60% in North Kordofan, 57% in El Shawak , 51% in River Nile, 51% in Butana and 43% in El Hamra. A highly significant difference between the seroprevalence in different age groups was established (P<0.01). This result revealed a high prevalence among old animals. Camels under one year of age have a high titer at 1 : 1024, the other age groups showed titers ranged between 1 : 512 and 1 : 128. There were no significant sex-linked differences in the different sex groups. Toxoplasma gondii oocysts were isolated from kittens that were fed raw cameline meat. Four pregnant she-camels at different stage of pregnancy and serologically negative for Toxoplasma gondii were infected with different doses of infective T. gondii oocysts (1x105 or 1x106 sporocysts). This study showed that the outcome of T. gondii infection varried according to the time of infection during pregnancy and the number of parasites inoculated; she-camel infected with 1x106 infective T. gondii oocysts during the first half of pregnancy, delivered dead calf-camel, she-camel infected with 1x105 infective T. gondii oocysts during the first half of pregnancy delivered a weak calf-camel, which showed corneal opacity and survived for 12 days, she-camel infected with 1x105 T. gondii oocysts at second half of pregnancy delivered a calf-camel that appeared normal at birth but it was unable to stand and needed assistance in suckling, it died at day 40 of age, she camel infected with 1x106 T. gondii oocysts at the second half of pregnancy delivered very weak , refused suckling and had diarrhoea. Toxoplasma tachyzoites and cysts were found in all infected calfcamels and in all infected mice. All calf-camels showed diarrhoea, gross examination revealed enlargement of lymph nodes, haemorrhages in brain, lung, kidneys, eyes and skeletal muscles. The main lesions detected microscopically in the calf-camels were haemorrhages, infiltration of lymphoid cells and congestion in lung, liver, brain, intestine, kidney and heart. Liver showed necrosis, lung showed oedema and emphyzema. Intestines of the calf-camels showed severe damage of epithelial cells, haemorrhage, congestion of blood vessels, infiltration of lymphocystes (mainly eosenophils) and aggregation of Toxoplasma tachyzoites. Focal necrosis and haemorrhages were detected in placentae of all infected she-camels. The placentae were enlarged and fragile. Microscopic findings revealed focal necrosis, infiltration of mononuclear cells and haemorrhages. The excretion of Toxoplasma gondii in milk of camels was studied by inoculation of mice with milk of three experimentally infected lactating she-camels. Toxoplasma tachyzoites and cysts were detected in the brain of the suckling calf-camels and mice. Toxoplasma antibodies were detected in sera of all infected suckling calf-camels with low antibody titers. This may reveal that the concentration of Toxoplasma tachyzoites in the milk of camels was low. Sarcocystis sporocysts were isolated from intestinal mucosae of puppies that had been fed on raw cameline meat. Calf-camels infected orally with different doses of Sarcocystis sporocysts showed different gravity of infection; calf-camel inoculated with 1x106 and 1x105 S. sporocysts died 21 days after infection and 27 days after infection respectively. Microscopic examination of tissues revealed haemorrhages, oedema and infiltration of lymphoid cells in lung, liver showed vacculation of cells and haemorrhages. Haemorrhages were detected in heart, lymph nodes, spleen and intestine. Schizonts were detected within endothelial cells of blood vessels of oesophagus, diaphragm and tongue. Calf-camel infected with 1x102 S. sporocysts died 90 days after infection. Microscopic examination revealed the presence of Sarcocystis cysts located lengthwise between the muscle fibers of the heart, oesophagus, diaphragm, tongue and skeletal muscles .
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/7945
Date: 2015-04-01


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