University of Khartoum

An Assessment of Management and Husbandry Practices in Some Dairy Farms in Khartoum State

An Assessment of Management and Husbandry Practices in Some Dairy Farms in Khartoum State

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Title: An Assessment of Management and Husbandry Practices in Some Dairy Farms in Khartoum State
Author: Babiker Abdel - Razig Elnazeir
Abstract: An extensive investigation of herd size, herd structure, breed type, lactation performance, feeding policies, housing, disease preventive measures and management practices were carried out in some dairy farms in Khartoum state. The Data was collected from 100 dairy farms, randomly selected from different localities within the Khartoum state. Information pertinent to dairy management, husbandry practices and preventive measure practices were secured through an extensive questionnaire and direct interview with the farm owners. A descriptive statistical analysis of the data indicated the following: - The total number of cattle in the 100 herds surveyed was 9145 heads with an overall mean of 91.45 ± 107.43 head / herd. The breed used in these farms was 1oo % graded dairy cows of varying levels of exotic blood. The exact crossing percentage however was not identified because of lack of breeding records in the majority of the farms The Herd structure was as follow: the number of milking cows was 3462 cow (37.86 % of the total herd) with an overall mean of 34.62± 46.38 cows / herd. The dry cows comprised 7.14 %, Heifers 11.85 % and calves and bulls accounted for 33.15 % of the herd. The average daily milk production per cow was found to be 18.95 ± 5.99 lbs. The average price of lb milk was 54.7 ± 7.5 SD. The average lactation length was 269 .85 ± 18.97 days, while the average dry period was 42.84 ± 28.56 days. The total amount of green fodder offered to a cow / day was 11.0 ± 4.4 kg DM and the supplementary feeding offered per cow per day was 5.23 ± 1.54 kg DM for the milking herds. Only 35 % of the farmers owned cultivable lands for growing their own roughages. Most of the pens were poorly designed; with an average area 9 of 1484.66 ± 1962.68 m2. 20 % of which is shaded and 80 % unshaded area. Individual calf housing was adopted in 16 %, identification of calves was practiced in 30 % and dehorning was applied in 24 % of the total farms studied. 80 % of the total farms have no production records, 83 % with no health records, and 81 % with no feeding records and 78 % with no reproductive records. The most widely used method for insemination was natural mating and was adopted in 96 % of the farms and artificial insemination was used in combination with natural mating in 4 % of the farms. Only 23 % of the total farms were under veterinary supervision. The annual routine vaccination against Anthrax, Black Quarter, Contagious Bovine Pluero Pnemonia and Heamorahagic septicemia was practiced in 63 % of the total farms while vaccination for diseases such as Brucellosis and Foot and Mouth Disease were not practiced at all in the farms studied. Mastitis, Theileriosis, Foot and Mouth Disease and Contagious Abortion cases were recorded in 27 %, 17 %, 44 % and 17 % of the total studied farms respectively. 25 % of the total farms practiced testing for diseases while culling policies were practiced in only 20 % of the farms Disinfection was practiced in 59 % of the total farms. Deworming with anthelmintic drenching was applied in 58 % for internal parasites control, while 64 % used routine ticks spray for external parasite. Pregnancy diagnosis was practiced in 48 % of the total farms. The data revealed that 33 % of the owners were university graduates, 30 % were illiterates, 28 % were primary level and 9 % were high school level. The age of most owners ranged between 40 – 49 years (36 %). Most of the labors were illiterates (84 %) while 16 % were with primary level. The age of most labors ranged between 25 – 35 years (64 %).
Description: 111 Pages
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/8044
Date: 2015-04-01


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