University of Khartoum

TREATMENT OF BRUCELLOSIS UNDER FIELD CONDITION USING OXYTETRACYCLINE AND STREPTOMYCINE IN KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA

TREATMENT OF BRUCELLOSIS UNDER FIELD CONDITION USING OXYTETRACYCLINE AND STREPTOMYCINE IN KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA

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Title: TREATMENT OF BRUCELLOSIS UNDER FIELD CONDITION USING OXYTETRACYCLINE AND STREPTOMYCINE IN KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA
Author: HAMED, OMAR
Abstract: Surveillance of productivity and diseasesin the farm under study for economic viability indicated that brucellosis was the cause of losses in production and consequently effects on farming economy and human health, the high incidence of abortion led to development of resistance against further abortions, and as a result infected animals looked apparently normal. This perhaps, was a reason for the infection going unnoticed till its effects on production were detected. Although lack of proper reporting and observation by the keeper staff contributed heavily to the spread of infection in the flock. The major reason seems to be the slackness on the part of the management. Study to evolve a more realistic approach towards the treatment and control of brucellosis in sheep under field conditions, with a greater emphasison the cost of treatment in relation to the market value of the animal, indicated that the actual cost of treatment amounts to 14.5% of its market value. Use of patents from countries like India that make available good quality drugs at the lowest possible prices, did reduce the overall cost significantly. The cost of treatment is negligible compared to the beneficial effects of the treatment; as such, the cost of treatment cannot be viewed as an obstacle in the control of the disease. This trial has, for the first time thrown a deeper insight on the extent of losses a farmer would incur, should he opt to skip off the treatment. Realistic estimates of losses as a consequence of disposing the infected animal without treatment would include the reduced sale price, earlyreplacement cost (difference between the actual market value and the reduced saleprice), cost of the investigations and the cost of feeding till the date of disposal. Such an estimate showed that the losses on this account exceeded the actualmarket value of the animal itself. Further, the losses in production are bound to crop up unless replacement is effected early. This is an enormous loss to the farmer individually and for the country as a whole. The damaging effects of brucellosis on the economy of 6 farming and the health hazards to humanscan only be prevented by application of proper control measures including surveillance, testing and massive immunization of animals and most importantly the treatment of the infected ones. (Saleh et al 1994) Screening of 6000 sheep of Naimi breed – a local breed of Saudi Arabia, revealed a high seroprevalence of 33.4% ofthe mature stock[. The flock had to be screened for six times to filter all the infected sheep. The interval between the tests in one of the earlier trials was three months (Radwan etal 1995) at which rate the total duration for screening of a flock of 6000 would be 540 days – a time long enough to exhaust the patience of the farmer and permit a long exposure of the uninfected lot of the flock to infection, in addition, it would cost heavily for feeding and management of as many as 1500 infected animals. that would be an enormous burden and loss to the farmer. However, in another trial the interval has been reduced to 30 days. (Radwan etal 1995) Whereas, during the course of this investigation it was seen that the results were variable even when the interval between the sampling was as short as two minutes…This, indicates that there is no need to allow an interval as long as three months or even one month. The interval between the tests in this trial was therefore reduced to ten days, which enabled completion of the whole investigation in a matter of 60 days. This has minimized to a great extentthe risk of exposure to the brucellae free animals to infection. All the 1500 young lambs between 3 to 6 months of age tested negative, although they were born to infected mothers and sucked infected milk, showing that the vertical transmission of the disease was either absent or the lambs had passive immunity through colostrums. Oxytetracycline combined with Streptomycin by injection together with intra mammary infusions to the milking ones given over an extended period of 46 days 7 resulted in a cure rate of 100% as evidentfrom the results of the serological and cultural investigations carried out at random Comparison of the antibody titre of the treated sheep and the controls determined periodically showed that there was a gradual decline in the titre in case of treated sheep whereas persistent levels wereshown in the untreated controls. Applying strict hygiene using single use sterile disposable syringes for the administration of the antimicrobial agents, lead to cmplete elimination of subcutaneous abscesses, anaphylactic shocks and irritability encountered in earlier trials . Weight gains, reduced mortality and improved conception rate observed in treated animals is, perhaps, due to action of the therapeutic agents employed in the regimen of treatment on sensetive organism other than brucllae rsposible for sub-clinical infection.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/8046
Date: 2015-04-01


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