University of Khartoum

Response of Broiler Chicks and Laying Hens to Dietary Leucaena Leucocephala Seeds

Response of Broiler Chicks and Laying Hens to Dietary Leucaena Leucocephala Seeds

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Title: Response of Broiler Chicks and Laying Hens to Dietary Leucaena Leucocephala Seeds
Author: Mohamed,Mohamed Elamin Ahmed
Abstract: Leucaena leucocephala seeds were analyzed for chemical composition and amino acids profile. The analyzed nutrient composition indicated that leucaena seeds are potential source of protein and energy. The protein content was 31.1% and the calculated metabolizable energy of the seeds was 2573.26 kcal/kg. Amino acids profile of leucaena seeds were 1.39% lysine%, 0.36% methionine, 0.35% cystine, 2.62% arginine, 4.63% glutamic acid, 0.87% threonine, 1.38% glycine, 1.11% alanine, 1.11% valine, 0.93% isoleucine, 1.81% leucine and 0.71% methionine + cystine. Antinutritional factors were 0.75% tannin and 697.50 mg/100g phytate. Five experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of Leucaena leucocephala seeds on broiler chick’s performance and some blood parameters. All experiments were arranged in a complete randomized design. One experiment was undertaken to investigate the effect of Leucaena leucocephala seeds on laying hens performance, external and internal quality characteristics of eggs and some blood parameters. 545 one-day-old unsexed broiler chicks of a commercial strain (Ross 308) were used, except in experiment four and five, in which the strain was Hubbard. The chicks were fed isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets for six or seven weeks. Parameters studied were feed intake, weight gain, Feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER), haematological parameters, plasma constituents, tibia ash%, Ca%, P% and leg score. In the first experiment, leucaena seed was incorporated at 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12%. The overall performance depicted that, overall feed intake, body weigh gain and PER were significantly (p<0.01) depressed with the inclusion of 6, 9 and 12% leucaena seeds in the diet. However, overall FCR, haematological parameters, plasma albumin, glucose and mortality rate were not influenced (p>0.05) by dietary treatments. Inclusion of dietary leucaena significantly decreased plasma Ca, Na, total protein and cholesterol. While plasma Glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase GOT, alkaline phosphatase ALP and uric acid were increased with the increased level of leucaena in the broiler diets. In the second experiment, leucaena seeds were included at 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12% in broiler finisher chicks. Overall feed intake, weight gain and final weight were increased with the inclusion of 3 and 6% leucaena seeds and slightly decreased at 9%. The poorest feed intake, weight gain and final weight were recorded for the birds on 12% leucaena seed diet. Haematological parameters were not affected by the dietary treatments except PCV%, which was significantly (p<0.05) increased with the inclusion of leucaena seeds. Dietary treatments did not show any effect on plasma constituents except plasma albumin, which was inconsistently affected. In experiment (3), leucaena seed was subjected to three treatments (soaking, roasting and supplementation with 40mg/Kg ferrous oxide). Then treated and untreated v leucaena seeds were incorporated in boiler diets at 0, 6 and 12%. Soaking and roasting of the seeds reduced phytate, whereas tannin was not significantly affected. Overall feed intake and weight gain were significantly (p<0.05) reduced with the inclusion of 12% soaked or 12% roasted leucaena seeds. However, feeding diets that were supplemented with ferrous had no effect on feed intake and weight gain. Dietary treatments did not affect haematological parameters, plasma GOT ALP, K, inorganic phosphorus (Pi), total protein, albumin, globulin, cholesterol, uric acid and tibia P. Plasma glucose was significantly (p<0.05) affected by dietary treatments. Birds fed leucaena seed diets were not significantly different as compared with those fed the control diet. In experiment (4), five diets were formulated, control diet, two levels of leucaena seeds (6 and 12%) were supplemented with ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) (0, 0.2%). Poor performance was associated with the inclusion of 12% leucaena seeds diets. Haemaological indices were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by the dietary treatments except PCV% and MCHC%. Though PCV% for birds fed leucaena seeds diets was not significantly different compared to the control. Plasma constituents were not significantly (p>0.05) influenced by the dietary treatments except total protein, albumin and globulin. Leg abnormality showed that supplementation with EDTA in both levels of leucaena seeds had no effect. In experiment (5), three levels of leucaena seeds (0, 6 and 12%), two levels of choline chloride (0, 0.1%) was added to leucaena seeds and incorporated in broiler diets. All performance parameters were depressed with the inclusion of leucaena seed diets. PCV% of birds fed any of leucaena seed diets was non significantly different compared to control. Plasma GOT, ALP, Na, Pi, K and globulin were not affected by the dietary treatments. Plasma cholesterol of birds fed leucaena seed diets was significantly lower than that of control. Leg score of birds fed leucaena seed diets was significantly (p<0.05) poorer compared to the control except for birds fed 6% choline supplemented leucaena seeds. The layers experiment was conducted to evaluate different levels of leucaena seed (0, 8, 16 and 24%) on 27 weeks of old laying hens. Parameters studied were egg production, external and internal quality characteristics of eggs, haematological indices and plasma constituents. Feed intake, hen-day egg production, FCR (kg feed/kg egg) and FCR (kg feed/dozens of egg) were depressed with the inclusion of leucaena seeds. Thereafter, birds were placed on control diet for two weeks, which revealed improvement of the performance except for FCR (kg feed/dozens of egg) for birds fed 24% leucaena seeds. Higher egg weight, maximum length and egg shell surface were recorded for birds fed 16% leucaena seeds compared to other. Maximum width, shell weight and shell% were reduced for birds fed 24% leucaena seeds. Internal quality characteristics of eggs were not significantly affected by the dietary treatments except albumin weight, albumin %, yolk index and yolk color score. Yolk color score consistently increased with the inclusion of leucaena seeds
Description: 279 Pages
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/8095
Date: 2015-04-02


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