University of Khartoum

Toxicity Of Poly Dadmac (Polydiallyl-Dimethyl Ammonium Chloride) And Alum Aluminium Sulphate) To Nubian Goats Andnewzealand Rabbits

Toxicity Of Poly Dadmac (Polydiallyl-Dimethyl Ammonium Chloride) And Alum Aluminium Sulphate) To Nubian Goats Andnewzealand Rabbits

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Title: Toxicity Of Poly Dadmac (Polydiallyl-Dimethyl Ammonium Chloride) And Alum Aluminium Sulphate) To Nubian Goats Andnewzealand Rabbits
Author: BESHIR, AMNA
Abstract: This work has been managed to yield toxicity information on two water treatment agents in the Sudan namely polyDADMAC and alum, using Nubian goat kids and Newzealand rabbits at multiple daily oral doses of single or combined agents for a period of 10 weeks. Forty five heads of either Nubian goats or Newzealand rabbits were divided into 17 groups, each of three. Group 1 animals were the undosed controls. Test groups of either species were given polyDADMAC at similar dose rates of 0.5, 2.5, 4.5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight respectively for groups 2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10 and 11. On treating test goats and rabbits with alum solution, dose rates of 1% and 20% were accepted by groups 12 and 13 respectively. Further, test goats and rabbits were dosed with combinations of 1% polyDADMAC and 1% alum in ratios of 1:2 and 3:20 to groups 14 and 15 respectively. Clinical signs were closely observed with postmortem and histopathological examinations. Chemical investigations included enzymatic concentrations of ALP, GOT, CK, GPT and LDH and metabolic changes of albumin, urea, total protein, cholesterol, bilirubin, glucose and creatinine. Fluctuations in electrolyte levels of Mg, Fe, Na, K, Ca and P were monitored together with hematological changes in Hb, PCV, RBCs and WBCs. Selective rabbit vital organ atomic absorption spectroscopy was made for alum concentrations. Mortalities occurred in both species to variable degrees irrespective of the dose level. On polyDADMAC challenge, both test species showed clinical signs of dullness, loss of weight, anorexia, diarrhea, difficulty in respiration, and recumbency. On alum dosing, both test species clinically suffered low voice, inappitence, whitish salivation, watery diarrhea and also recumbency. Combined interacted doses of polyDADMAC and alum caused in both species interrupted salivation, vomiting and hind limb paralysis. Notably in both species oral dosing with polyDADMAC caused lung emphysema , hepatic and renal dysfunctions , irregularity in enzymatic activities and serum metabolites , sloughing of intestinal epithelium , decreased electrolytes in serum , and splenic haemosiderosis , whereas oral dosing with alum gave rise to lung emphysema ,stiffness , and edema , electrolyte imbalance , renal and hepatic dysfunctions , and finally the focal enteritis was dominant. On atomic absorption only the lungs kept residual alum, while the livers washed- out the substance, may be via bile. Goats and rabbits that accepted interacted doses of polyDADMAC and alum , showed obvious renal and hepatic dysfunctions, deficiencies in electrolytes, fluctuations in serum enzymatic levels , congested muscularis mucosae and hind quarter paralysis. xv On evaluation of the above results polyDADMAC, alum and their interaction were considered toxic to Nubian goat kids and Newzealand rabbits at all dose rates tried .Practical implications of the results were highlighted and suggestions for future work were put forward.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/8112
Date: 2015-04-02


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