University of Khartoum

Some parasitological and pathological studies in Nubian goats experimentally infected with Trypanosoma vivax

Some parasitological and pathological studies in Nubian goats experimentally infected with Trypanosoma vivax

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Title: Some parasitological and pathological studies in Nubian goats experimentally infected with Trypanosoma vivax
Author: Mohammed, Nadia
Abstract: The present work was carried out to study the susceptibility of Nubian goats to experimental Trypanosoma vivax infection and the pathological effects of the infection on them. Also different parasitological techniques were compared in diagnosis of infection when taking blood samples from jugular and ear veins. Twenty Nubian goats were used in the experiment. They were divided into four groups each contained five animals, the first three were experimentally infected with T. vivax through the jugular vein using different infective doses, low (+), medium (++) and high (+++). While the fourth group served as uninfected group. During the study different parasitological techniques were used for detecting trypanosome infection. These included wet blood smears, thin and thick stained blood smears, haematocrit centrifugation technique (HCT) and dark ground phase contrast buffy coat technique. The haematocrit centrifugation technique was found to be the most superior parasitological technique used. Higher parasitaemia levels were detected from blood collected from ear veins when compared to blood collected from jugular vein indicating accumulation of trypanosomes in the peripheral circulation of infected animals. The study showed that Nubian goats are highly susceptible to T. vivax infection. Infected animals showed different clinical signs, while different changes in blood, serum and tissues of some organs were encountered. Also the infection led to death of some of the infected animals. The infection resulted in significant decrease in packed cell volume (PCV), total red blood cells numbers (RBCs) and 5 haemoglobin concentration (Hb) values. Significant increases were encountered in mean cell volume (MCV) and mean cell haemoglobin (MCH) values. No significant change was observed in mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC). These results indicated the presence of macrocytic normochromic anaemia. Total white blood cells (WBCs) numbers were normal. Serum biochemical alterations showed significant increase in aspartate aminotransferase activity (AST), total proteins, globulins and urea values. However no alterations were observed in serum albumin, creatinine, sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+) values. Different gross changes due to the infection were also detected, these included pale mucous and serous membranes, watery blood, muscle atrophy, hemorrhages in kidneys and congestion of the brain. Different histopathological changes were also detected in several organs; these include mononuclear cell infiltrations and vaculation of Purkingi cells in heart. The liver revealed congestion and areas of coagulative necrosis associated with vascular thrombosis. Lungs showed thickening of the alveolar septa and infiltration of mononuclear cells. Spleen sections revealed deposition of haemosiderin pigments. Changes of kidneys included haemorrhages in the medulary rays and degeneration of tubular cells while adrenal glands showed hemorrhages and degeneration of some cortical cells. There were oedema and thrombosis of some blood vessels in lymph nodes. The brain showed gliosis and vacuolation of cerebral gray matter and degeneration of neurons. Testis showed necrosis, oedema, congestion and multiple granulomas. It could be concluded that Nubian goats are highly susceptible to T. vivax infection and could be suitable as experimental animal in 6 T. vivax studies. The HCT and thin stained smears were found to be suitable diagnostic tools for T. vivax infection.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/8249
Date: 2015-04-05


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