University of Khartoum

Prevalence of Brucellosis in Kuku Dairy Khartoum State and the Susceptibility of Isolates to Some Chemotherapeutic Agents

Prevalence of Brucellosis in Kuku Dairy Khartoum State and the Susceptibility of Isolates to Some Chemotherapeutic Agents

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Title: Prevalence of Brucellosis in Kuku Dairy Khartoum State and the Susceptibility of Isolates to Some Chemotherapeutic Agents
Author: ABDEL RAHMAN, ADIL
Abstract: The objectives of this work were to study human and bovine brucellosis in Kuku Dairy Co-operative Scheme, Khartoum State, Sudan. And to isolate the causative agent and determination of their susceptibility patterns to some chemotherapeutic agents and to identify risk factors associated with the infection as well. The study provided information about the epidemiology of the disease among both animal and human subjects in the study area. Epidemiological data were obtained from primary and secondary sources. This was performed by conducting two brucellosis field surveys for both humans and cattle. Personal communications withexperts, meetings with farmers were also used as primary sources for data collection. While secondary ones used were textbooks, publications and the internet. Human brucellosis survey was carried out in the period from June to September 2004. One hundred and seventy six volunteer participants were enrolled in the study, mainly those who were working in close contact with animals. The diagnosis of human brucellosis was based on clinical examination and serological tests. Those were Rapid Slide Test (RST), Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT), Competitive Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (cELISA) and Tube Agglutination Test (TAT). The later test is practiced routinely for the diagnosis of human brucellosis in the Sudan, but in our study was used for titration only. Survey for bovine brucellosis was carried out in the period from January to June 2005. Cattle examined were selected randomly from dairy farms "holdings" (which represented the primary statistical units). Then the individual animals (which represented the secondary statistical units) “i.e. all adults cows” were identified and sampled. According to Robinson, (2003) the size of the primary statistical units was calculated as 30.1 units, with α=0.05 and desired accuracy of 10. The number of animals examined was 566 cows. Blood for serum samples, milk, synovial fluids, vaginal swabs and tissues from retained placentas were collected for culture. Diagnosis of bovine brucellosis Prevalence of brucellosis was based on isolation of brucellae and serological examinations (i.e. RBPT, cELISA and Milk Ring Test "MRT"). Human brucellosis prevalence rate was found be 16.5%, 15.9 %, 14.8%, and 11.4% based on RBPT, RST, TAT and cELISA, respectively. Four patients (2.3%) out of the total human subjects investigated were found to have active disease. Factors associated with infection such as consumption of raw milk (92.6% of the study population) and exposure to contaminated materials (89.8% of the study population) were found to be the mostsignificant risk factors. Bovine brucellosis prevalence rate among selected farms was found to be 93.3% based on RBPTand 90% based on cELISA. While the prevalence among individual animals investigated was found to be 32.7%, 27.4%, 28.8 % and 1.8% based on RBPT, cELISA, MRT and isolation of brucellae, respectively. The study confirmed thatthe Kuku Dairy Co-operative Scheme area was endemic with brucellosis. To strains of Brucella abortus biovar 1 and eight strains of Brucella abortus biovar 6 were isolated, and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns tosome chemotherapeutic agents were determined. And accordingly; two strains of B. abortus biovar 6were found resistant to Rifampicin. The study recommends control of the disease in animals initially by whole herd vaccination and adoption of test and slaughter policy thereafter for eradication purposes. In addition, education of people at high risk is of paramount importance. Furthermore, comprehensive studies at national are also recommended.
Description: 126page
URI: http://khartoumspace.uofk.edu/handle/123456789/8316
Date: 2015-04-06


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