University of Khartoum

Antibacterial Activity of Twelve Medicinal Plants

Antibacterial Activity of Twelve Medicinal Plants

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Title: Antibacterial Activity of Twelve Medicinal Plants
Author: Abdel Mageed, Intisar
Abstract: The ever growing bacterial resistance to both conventional and alternative antibiotics made it very difficult to manage infected wounds and abscesses and other infectious diseases. Hence, the aim of this study was to find antibacterial agents from a collection of medicinal plants that have been in use for thousands of years in Sudanese traditional medicine. This study was designed to evaluate the susceptibility of 5 bacterial species isolated from wounds and abscesses to extracts of 12 medicinal plants. The bacterial isolates were Escherichia coli,Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella sp and Proteus vulgaris; and the extracts were taken from Salvia orientalis, Punicar granatum (Bark and Wood), Biotaorientalis, Piper cubeba, Acorus calamus, Candula arvensis, Moringa perigrina, Nauclea lotifolia, Ferula asafoetida, Cissus petiolata, andPetasites hybridus. The evaluation of bacterial susceptibility to the selected medicinal plants was based on the presence or absence of inhibition zone and zone diameter, using the cup plate agar diffusion method. For comparative reasons standard Escherichia coli(NCTC 25922); Staphylococcus aureus(NCTC 25923); Pseudomonas aeruginosa(NCTC 27853); Klebsella sp(NCTC 35657); Bacillus subtilis(ATCC 8236), and conventional antibiotics including Benzylepenicillin, Erythromycin, Gentamycin and Ceftriaxone were used The major phytoconstituents in the extracts of the 12 medicinal plants were identified using standard qualitative methods. Varying numbers Page viiiof 219 and quantities of Tannins, Flavonoids, Saponins, Cardic glycoside, phenolic glycoside, Anthraquinone glycoside, Cyanogenic glycosides and Alkaloids were found. Adopting the standard methods, 100 bacterial organisms were isolated, and found to consist of Gram’s negative bacteria (Escherichia coli(20%); Pseudomonas aeruginosa(20%); Proteus vulgaris(18%) and Klebseilla sp. (17%); and Gram’s positive Staphylococcus aureus(18%); and 7% of Methicillin-resistant-Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA) which could be concidere as an alarming level of prevalence. Methanolic extracts of medicinal plants against bacterial isolates, high sensitivity was shown by: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella sp and Staphylococcus aureus to the majority of the test medicinal plants. This sensitivity was found to be more than that of the benzenic and chloroformic extracts. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has shown sensitivity to all tested medicinal plants extracts, however, Punicar granatum (Bark) gave the highest antibacterial activity followed by Biota orientalisand then Anogeissus leiocarpus. These results revealed the potentials of these plants as a source of effective antibacterial agents that can improve the treatment and possibly the eradication of MRSA Biota orientalisextracts when tested using agar plate dilution method, have shown the lowest MIC against all tested standard bacteria, hence it was considered as a potential wide-spectrum antibacterial medicinal plant extract. Whereas Punicar granatum(Bark) showed that it has the highest MIC. Also, it was observed that Bacillus subtilis is the most Page ixof 219 susceptible to Anogeissus leiocarpus, Punicar granatum (Bark) and Biota orientalis. This study revealed the need for more studies on MRSA. Further studies are olso needed to explore the activity of benzinic and chloroformic extract of all test medicinal plants. The methanolic extract, especially those showing high antibacterial efficacy sould be subjected to rigorous testing to determine their usefulness as alternative antibacterial agents.
Description: 69 Pages
URI: http://khartoumspace.uofk.edu/handle/123456789/8486
Date: 2015-04-08


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