The Role of Gut Microflora on the Pathogenicity of Enteric Coccidia of Sudanese goats

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Mohamed, Halima
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In the present study, three experiments were performed using 3-month old, 42 male goat kids.They were divided into two groups (A and B) which subdivided into three subgroups (A1, A2 A3;B1, B2 ,B3,B4) 6 kids each, to study gut microflora, their distribution, factors affecting its composition and the interaction with goat coccidia. Group A1 was given normal ration (Leucerne and Sorghum hay), group A2 was injected with Gentamycin while group A3 was supplemented with protein ration.Whereas, group B1 fed normal ration; B2 injected with Gentamycin and B3 was given high protein ration. All group B (B1, B2 ,B3)were inoculated orally with 1.5X10 6 sporulated oocysts of mixed eimeria spp., whereas group B4 remained as uninfected untreated control. Viable counts of the microflora were madein different parts of small intestine and feces. All flora observed were qualitatively similar in all kids of group A1 consisting principally of lactobacilli, streptococci species Escherchia coli, Clostridium perfringens, bacteroides and Staphylococcus auerus. These bacteria formed the major components of the alimentary flora in goat kids. The presence of the aforementioned bacteria increased progressively from duodenum to ileum, being more numerous in the large intestine. This population pattern was observed in all parts of the gut; lactobacilli, Escherichi coli streptococci, Clostridium XIV perfringens,; whereas, Staphylococcus aureusand bacteroideswere confined to the large intestine only. Clostridium perfringenswas either present in small number, or completely absent. Staphylococcus aureuswas usually found in small number. The pattern of bacterial microflora of the faeces closely resembled that ofthe large intestine. In group A2(injected with Gentamycin) Escherichi coli, Lactobacilli, Streptococcus speciesand Staplyococcus aureus showed a reduction in number compared with that of group A1. In group A3 (high protein ration). Streptococci, clostridium and bacteroides increased in number while lactobacilli, staphlococcusand E. coliremained unchanged. In group B interaction of coccidia with gut microflora showed that Eimeria speciesof goats is the main cause of the acute fatal disease observed in the experimentalanimals. The other organisms, (bacterial flora) however, may playa role in the severity of the disease. These bacteria may induce their effects when cocidiosis occur as a result of changes in the intestinal pH, transit, motility and permeability of the intestinal wall. These conditions are favourable for pathogenic flora to proliferate and interact with coccidian in the gut. E. coliisolates recovered from apparently healthy goat kids are generally non toxigenic and may belong to a number of non pathogenic serogroup. However, Clostridium perfringensisolated from healthy kids were pathogenic to both mice and kids resulting in a peracute disease. XV However, we conclude from the present study, that, the activity and the interaction of bacterial flora in the intestines is complex and very little was understood with the present isolates.
Gut Microflora,Pathogenicity,Enteric Coccidia, Sudanese goats