University of Khartoum

Sero–epidemiology of Hepatitis B among Children <10 Years of Age in Khartoum State, 2004–2005

Sero–epidemiology of Hepatitis B among Children <10 Years of Age in Khartoum State, 2004–2005

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Title: Sero–epidemiology of Hepatitis B among Children <10 Years of Age in Khartoum State, 2004–2005
Author: Musa, Nisreen
Abstract: Background: Epidemiology of hepatitis B infection in the Middle East in 2001 showed that the prevalence in Sudan was between 16–20%. Community–based surveys are recommended as they provide more accurate information that can be generalized than hospital–based surveys. WHO estimated that among children, new hepatitis B carrier will be reduced at least 80% through integration of hepatitis B vaccine into national immunization programmes. This study is intended to conduct a community–based sero–epidemiologic survey to estimate hepatitis B markers among children <10 years in Khartoum State. Such type of studies shall provide baseline data that would be of priceless benefit for any further impact studies in future in the country. It has been a perfect opportunity to have this study being completed just before the introduction of hepatitis B vaccine into EPI in the country. Design: Cross–sectional community–based survey. Settings: Khartoum State, as a study area; more or less it represents the whole country with its diverse demographic features. Five hundred Blood Samples were taken from children aged 0–10 years old and tested for anti–HBc, HBsAg, anti–HBs, HBeAg, and anti–HBe. Objectives: • To measure the sero–prevalence of HB markers (HBsAg, HBeAg, Anti–HBs, Anti–HBc and Anti–HBe) in children <10 years of age in Khartoum State. • To determine the relationship between selected risk factors and presence of positive HBV markers among children <10 years of age in Khartoum State. – v – Results: The study showed that one hundred twenty four children 24.8% {95%CI, 24.84%–24.76%} were positive for Anti–HBc. 14 of them 11.3% {95% CI, 11.21%–11.39%} were positive for HBsAg. No anti–HBs were detected for those who were negative i.e. they were not immuned. Out of those 14 children who were positive for HBsAg 11 (78.6%) were also found to be positive for HBeAg. Anti–HBe was found positive in 1 (33.3%) out of the 3 negative. As far as the risk factors are concerned, there is a statistical significant relation between Anti–HBc positive marker and family tribe (P=0.047). Refugees especially those from endemic areas (P=0.036). Child history of blood or blood products transfusion (P=0.017). Child history of chronic illness required regular injection (P=0.023) and the type of chronic disease that required regular injection (P=0.031). No statistical significant relation between other HBV markers and the other studied risk factors. Conclusion: It is concluded that the prevalence rate of current or past HB infection among children <10 years old in Khartoum States was 24.8%. The prevalence rate of chronic carriers was 11.3%. There was statistical significant relation between presence of anti–HBc and family tribe, refugees, history of blood or blood products transfusion and chronic illness that required regular exposure to injections. It was recommended that HB vaccine be included in the routine immunization schedule in Sudan. Another impact study has to be conducted after five to ten years.
URI: http://khartoumspace.uofk.edu/handle/123456789/8741
Date: 2015-04-09


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