University of Khartoum

Variation in Morphological, Physical and Chemical Constituents of Balanites Aegyptiaca Fruit Between Geographical Sites

Variation in Morphological, Physical and Chemical Constituents of Balanites Aegyptiaca Fruit Between Geographical Sites

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Title: Variation in Morphological, Physical and Chemical Constituents of Balanites Aegyptiaca Fruit Between Geographical Sites
Author: Abdoun, Somaya Omer Magzoub
Abstract: The objectives of this work were to study the variation in morphological characteristics, physical and chemical constituents of Balanites aegyptiaca fruit according to shape and geographical locations. Balanites aegyptiaca fruits were collected from Abu Jibeiha Province, Southern Kordofan State (three different sites) and Dindir Province, Sinnar State. The size and weight of the fruit samples were measured; percentages of the fruit different parts were determined and chemical and statistical analysis were carried out to obtain the percentages of sugar, saponin, protein, oil and moisture content in the Balanites fruit. There were significant differences between the four fruit shapes (oblong, elongate, spherical and oval fruits) in all of the studied morphological characteristics across and within sites and between locations. Fruit weight had the greatest variation among all fruit characteristics and fruit diameter showed the least degree of variation. The majority of fruits (300 fruits from five trees from each of the three sites) were oblong in shape (61%) and they were the largest fruits and had the greatest variation in fruit characteristics. Spherical (shortest) fruits had the least variation and they were the fewer (7%). Elongate fruits were the longest fruits. The values of fruit weight for the four shapes were significantly higher in Abu Jibeiha than in Dinder location. Hejlij seeds also showed significant variation in the morphological characteristics. Fruit shape and location had significant effects on fruit physical (fruit layers) and chemical constituents. The highest average percentages of fruit layers obtained by fruit shapes were as follows: highest epicarp (٢٥٫٢%) by spherical fruit, highest mesocarp (37.4%) by elongate fruit, highest endocarp (35%) by oblong fruit, and highest kernel (9.9%) by oval fruits. Abu Jibeiha location obtained the highest kernel percentage. The highest saponin content (4%) was obtained by oblong fruits while the highest invert sugar (40.9%) and oil content (44.9%) were obtained by oval fruits. Saponin average percentage obtained in Dindir location was double that obtained in Abu Jibeiha; the higher sugar percentage was obtained in Abu Jibeiha location. Protein content was found to be of higher content than that reported in the literature; it ranged between 49.6 (oval fruit) and 53.8% (oblong fruit). Moisture content was not significantly different between shapes and locations of a mean 9.3%. The amounts of sugar, saponin, oil and protein, were found in considerable percentages to introduce Balanites different types to the food and medicinal industries.
Description: 141 Pages
URI: http://khartoumspace.uofk.edu/handle/123456789/9173
Date: 2015-04-21


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