Impact Of Land Use Changes On Vegetation Cover And Sustainable Livelihoods Along The Banks Of Niles At Khartoum State, Sudan

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Elawad, Galal
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This research deals with the different land uses on the banks of the River Nile, Blue and White Niles in the study area. Three locations have been selected along parts of the waterfront in Khartoum State with the objective of assessing changes in land use and its impact on the vegetation cover and the sustainable livelihoods of the population. The study benefited from the techniques of aerial photographs and satellite products, which describes the current land use patterns and the former uses during approximately thirty years. The products of 1972 and 2001 were analyzed and compared with ERDAS program to determine the magnitude of changes in land use. Two types of data were used; namely, primary and secondary data. The field survey revealed the existence of four types of land use in the study area. These types were investment buildings and settlement, agricultural land (farms), forests (trees and shrubs) and red-brick factories (Kilns). The fifth category is bare lands which are left without any pattern of usage. The results showed that the area of agricultural land, industrial and residential areas have increased while the forest area and bare land have decreased as a result of the changes imposed by both the government and the local population for using land for Kilns, housing and investment buildings. These activities have led to land degradation in terms of environmental value and productivity. V An important aspect of the research results is that the impact of land use on forest cover and livelihoods of the population is very complex and dynamic. This is exemplified by the changes on the west bank of the White Nile where land adjacent to the Gerif land have changed from agricultural use to residential and investment usage, (City of business and money). Also, on the other side of the White Nile bank the Sunt forest has been affected by the creation and construction of the Ingas Bridge and Sunt city have taken some parts Sunt area and affected the lives of people in the study area. The changes in along of the banks of the Blue Nile included construction of Kilns and factories which have affected the environment. Changes in land use along the banks of the River Nile included the planned and non planned buildings and small-scale Kilns. Generally, the climate fluctuation and human illegal interference are the most important factors in this process. The study concluded that the use of land requires a clear plan for optimum land use. According to the information collected from questionnaire, various human activities are behind this change and these changes have led to the deterioration of forest cover and consequently resulted in the loss of a source of income for the local population. Some parts of the study area were converted into buildings, Kilns and residential at the expense of forests and pastures. Because of these alarming changes, decision makers should initiate efficient plans and management of the forests to reduce or stop further changes in land cover, especially in arid and semi arid areas. The study also recommends that the plan for the sound use of land need to be reviewed from time to time, to ensure rehabilitation, reduce vulnerability to desertification and halt the encroachment use by construction of facilities and buildings at the expense of environmental issues. The research arrived at other recommendations.
Impact,Land,Use,Changes,Vegetation,Cover,Sustainable,Livelihoods, Sudan