Some Aspects of Climate Changes and Impacts on Human Livelihoods

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Abdalla, Elnour
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There is consensus among scientists and development professionals that the climate is changing as a result of human induced activities associated with land use and fossil fuel consumption. The human activities resulted in increasing emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases (GHGs). Taking the year 1850 as a baseline year, the emissions of CO2 gradually increased reaching a level of alarming concentration particularly during the last seventeen decades than its state over 750 years before year 1850. Carbon dioxide concentration was stable within 180– 280 ppm over long periods up to early 1900s, but its stability within these limits was disturbed leading to a progressive increase up to 450 ppm at present. Increasing temperature and declining annual rainfall amount are strongly associated with CO2 increase. The resulting impacts are clearly observed in natural resources degradation which in turn affects human livelihood and well being. The negative impact of the changing climate on human life is reflected in scarcity of water resources, loss of agricultural land, decline in agricultural productivity, decrease in forests and plant cover and losses in livestock resources. Conflicts are becoming obvious results, causing human displacement and loss of lives. The objective of the present paper is to review those issues of climate changes and their impacts on human resources and livelihoods. Some examples of responses and measures taken towards mitigation of these threatening aspects are highlighted. Conclusions and recommendations are presented in order to be adopted by decision makers and land use practitioners at national and State levels in Sudan.
Climate change; GHGs; land use; impact; mitigation