University of Khartoum

Effect of Water Harvesting and Spreading Techniques on Agricultural Development and Environmental Stability in Northern Kordofan State, Sudan.

Effect of Water Harvesting and Spreading Techniques on Agricultural Development and Environmental Stability in Northern Kordofan State, Sudan.

Show full item record

Title: Effect of Water Harvesting and Spreading Techniques on Agricultural Development and Environmental Stability in Northern Kordofan State, Sudan.
Author: Osman Abbaker, Mohammed
Abstract: Effect of Water Harvesting and Spreading Techniques on Agricultural Development and Environmental Stability in Dry lands- North Kordofan State-Sudan This study was conducted in North Kordofan State (period from February 2007 to March 2008). The research aims to evaluate some effects of the techniques on agricultural development and an environmental stability in dry lands of the study area, in order to explore the potential role of sustainable adoption of WH techniques and their contribution to reduce the adverse impacts of lands degradation and desertification, the effect of concentrated grazing and overstocking around water points, in order to know the environmental value of WH which include: protection from seasonal floods, reducing epidemic diseases, improving health conditions. Social value: rural areas development, creating job opportunities, population stability, poverty and hunger alleviation, improving living standard, minimizing displacement to cities and urban centers. Economical value: agricultural development in traditional agriculture areas by increasing production and productivity, improving livestock and forestry through rational use of natural resources particularly land and water, encourage investment which ultimately lead to increase the National economics. In addition to the strategic value to ensure the utilization of seasonal water sources, contribution to food and water security for both human and animal in the area, and finally providing different financial sources to support Sudan development programmes. Moreover, to identify the best methods that contribute towards better utilization and conservation of natural resources and the problem associated with it. Some methods were used to collect data, namely the primary data through reconnaissance, questionnaire, observation, group discussion, personal interviews, photographing, official records and reports. In addition to the vegetation and soil moisture content measurements, which covered five selected sites (Errahad turda, Elain dam, Elgenainya fula, Elobeid dam and Elayara hafir) for practical field measurements. The results showed that these techniques have very effective role and a great contribution to reduce the causes of desertification and their negative impacts (85.6%), improving rangelands(83.1%), increasing crop production( 97.6%), forests and natural resources conservation (94%), food and water security (86.7%), livestock and agricultural insurance (96.4%), socioeconomic status improvement for farmers and pastoralists (96.4%) and ultimately rural areas stability and development (87.5%), as explained by the majority of the respondents. On the other XIX hand, the results of vegetation and soil moisture measurements showed that the vegetation cover have been exposed to various degrees of degradation which led to appearance of high amounts of unpalatable plant species around water points, resulting from overgrazing. Soil moisture content parameters showed that all treated sites (around water points), have recorded higher percentages than untreated sites as control, the plant composition index were; 89.6% in Errahad, 72% in Elain, 87.6% in Elgenainya, 78.6% in Elobeid dam and 81% in Elayara compared to the control. Plant density index were; 44.8 in Errahad, 36 in Elain, 43.8 in Elgenainya, 39.3 in Elobeid and 40.5 in Elayara. Forage density index were; 33.3 in Errahad, 29 in Elain, 20.5 in Elgenainya, 25.3 in Elobeid and 24.5 in Elayara compared to the control. Ground cover percentages were; 56.3% in Errahad, 72.5% in Elain, 63.8% in Elgenainya, 85% in Elobeid and 35% in Elayara compared to the control. Soil moisture content; ranged from (18% to 43.8%) at depth 30 cm, and from (30% to 55.5 %), at depth 60 cm for all sites, compared to mean of control sites (13.4% and 24.6%), respectively. Plant diversity within five sites was estimated as palatable (64.3% to 78.6%), and unpalatable (21.4% to 35.7%), respectively. The main problems and constraints confronting the sustainability of water harvesting techniques and their adopted project in the area of the study are the followings: limitation of finance, machinery, equipment and tools, mismanagement, weakness in coordination and cooperation system, absence of adequate studies and lack of applied research, weakness in (conception, initiation, maintenance, operation, monitoring, and evaluation), in addition to the wrong design and unsustainable activities, and the absence of active extension programmes. The results stated that the WH techniques still as one of the important tools for seasonal rainwater resources( valleys, natural plains) management for the different purposes of use such as; drinking water and for domestic use, agriculture and it is important for maintenance; buildings, infrastructure(roads, railway) and agricultural schemes from runoff and floods and consequently support the rational use for natural resources to ensure the future of sustainable development in the whole country. Moreover, the adoption of techniques has not represented any danger or damages on that area. The level of participation of local communities in the activities of the project is described as very good; this reflects the potentiality of the project in mobilizing the local community for the adoption of the different activities. The study arrived to valuable conclusions and necessary recommendations, which is considered as useful and possible to use as base for the further studies
URI: http://khartoumspace.uofk.edu/handle/123456789/9472
Date: 2015-04-26


Files in this item

Files Size Format View

This item appears in the following Collection(s)

Show full item record

Share

Search DSpace


Browse

My Account