Anti-diarrhoeal Activity of Hydnora abyssinica Aqueous Root Extract in Rat

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Mohammed Yassin Osman, Hala
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University of Khartoum
This study was designed toinvestigate the anti-diarrhoeal activity of the orally administrated extract of Hydnora abyssinica roots at different doses to rats. The anti-diarrhoeal potential of plant extract was tested in rats by faecal mass inhibition.The toxicity of the plant extract was also tested at different doses to rats via oral route. The aqueous extract of Hydnora abyssinica was tested using twenty- four Albino rats arranged in five groups (control+3 test groups + loperamide group) receiving oral dose rates of 100, 200 and 400 mg extract/kg body weight/rat, 3 mg loperamide (reference anti-diarrhoeal drug)/kg body weight/rat and 1 ml/kg body weight/rat of normal saline (control). All individuals were given orally, 30 minutes subsequent to extract administration, acute diarrhoea inducer (1 ml castor oil /kg body weight/rat). Cumulative wet faecal mass was weighed for assessment of diarrhoea state at 4 and 6 hours. The safety of the extract was also tested, using twenty Albino rats distributed in four groups (control + 3 test groups) given oral dose of 400, 800 and 1600 mg extract/kg body weight/rat/day, continued for seven days. The aqueous extract of Hydnora abyssinica showed significant (P<0.05) anti-diarrhoeal activity against castor oil induced diarrhoea in all rats with reduction rates of 46.78%, 63.21% and 74.68% for the doses 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight respectively at 4 th hrs post treatment and these doses rates recorded inhibition rates of 27.42%, 50.88% and 60.13% at 6 th hours respectively post treatment. Clinical signs were observed regularly. Sera were analyzed for enzymatic activities of AST, ALT and metabolic indicators such as total protein, albumin, sodium, potassium and calcium. Also, changes in values xi of RBCS, Hb, PCV, MCV and MCHC were recorded. The weight of faeces was recorded too for assessment of diarrhoeal inhibition. In both experiments, clinically no signs of toxicity were observed, no deaths or gross changes in the examined vital organs. Metabolic indicators; total protein, potassium and calcium demonstrated significant increase while sodium and albumin showed no significant changes at dose 400 mg/kg. In haematological parameters there were significant decrease in values of RBCs, PCV and MCHC while Hbconcentration showed significant increase. MCV values indicated no changes. Plant extract’s safety showed no significant change in the serum (ALT) activity while in (AST) activitythere was significant increase. In serum metabolites, there were no changes in the concentration of total protein and albumin when compared with the un-dosed control group at the end of the experiment. The concentration of sodium and potassium showed significant increase. There were significant decrease in the concentration of haematological parameters tested; RBCS, Hb and PCV. MCHC showed significant increase, while MCV values demonstrated no changes. The results were discussed with suggestions for future studies.
115 Pages
Anti-diarrhoeal Activity,Hydnora,abyssinica,Aqueous Root Extract,Rats;Traditional medicinal plants;Adansonia digitata;Taxonomy;Flock medicine;viral activity;Fertility activity