Phytochemical, Biological and Formulation Studies of Three Local Medicinal Plants

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Himmed, Mohammed
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The present study was carried out on three types of Sudanese medicinal plants (Ambrosia maritima, Corn-silk and Cymbopogon proximus) used for dissolution of urinary calculi (kidney, ureter and bladder), and also diuretic. Ambrosia maritima: Phytochemical screening, toxicity and biological activities were carried out. Ambrosia maritima showed toxic effect but not lethal. Pharmacological studies of Ambrosia maritima showed relaxation/contraction on isolated rabbit intestine. Local anaesthetic effects of Ambrosia maritima were studied using frog foot-withdrawal reflex method, and compared with benzocain (refrence drug). The results showned that, Ambrosia maritima has no local anaesthetic effect. Ambrosia maritima was tested against gram negative bacteria, Pseudomonas, E. coli, Klebsiella Spp. and gram positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, the results obtained showed that Ambrosia maritima has no antibacterial activity against either gram negative or gram positive type. Ambrosia maritimawater extract was formulatedin tablet dosage form and the physicochemical properties; hardness (4.6 kg /in 2 ) , friability (0.6%), disintegration (12 min) and dissolution (u.v reading after 45 min: 0.204) were determined and evaluated , these results comply with U.S.P and B.P requirements. Corn-silk: Phytochemical screening of Corn-silk showed presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins and tannins. Saponins and flavonoidswere separated using chromatographic technique, butaqueous extract was used as it is similar to its oral use in folk medicine. 19 Pharmacological experiments were conducted using experimental animal (Rabbit, Local). Corn-silk water extract showed contraction/relaxation effects at different concentrations. Local anaesthetic effects of Corn-silkwere studied. The results obtained showed that, Corn- silkhas no local anaesthetic effect. Antibacterial activity was tested and the results obtained showed that, the plant under test has no effect on Escherichia coli, klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas spp. and Staphylococcus aureus. Aqueous extract of Corn-silkwas prepared and formulated in tablet dosage form and subjected to a number of quality control tests, including physicochemical parameters; hardness (4.2 kg / in 2 ), friability (0.7 %), disintegration (13 min) and dissolution (u.v reading after 45 min: 0.680). The results obtained where within the range stated in B.P and U.S.P. pharmacopoeia . Cymbopogon Proximus Pipretone was separated using chromatographic technique, particularly, thin layer chromatography and columnchromatography. The struture was illucidated by infra-red spectroscopy. Antibacterial activity of Cymbopogon proximus gave negative results against both gram negative bacteria (Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, E. coli), and gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus spp.). Combined tablets were formulated from Ambrosia maritima, Corn-silk andCymbopogon proximus. Physicochemical properties; hardness (4.6 kg/in 2 ) , disintegration (12 min), friability (081 %) and dissolution (u.v. reading after 45 min : 0.220) were recorded and evaluated .These results comply with U.S.P and B.P pharmacopoeia . Clinical Studies: Clinical Studies were conducted to prove the performance and to evaluate the therapeutic activities of Corn- silk. In this study, sixty patients with 20 different complaints mainly urinary track infection received herbal treatment (decoction), more than sixty percent of the patients were cured by this herb. For the above activity, Corn-silkwas formulated in tablets dosage form.
Phytochemical, Biological,Formulation Studies,Local Medicinal Plants