Weeds and Weed Management in Wheat (Trilicum Aeslivum L.) In Northern Sudan

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Omer, Khalid Mohamed
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University of Khartoum
This study was conducted at H Research Station Experimental Farm, Ed- Darner during 1998/1999-1999/2000 seasons. The objectives of this research were to study the magnitude of yield loss due to weeds and to develop an integrated weed management strategy in wheat, based on both cultural and chemical methods. The study was comprised the following research activities: 1- Effect of wheat cultivars, seed rate and inter- row spacing with or without hand weeding in suppressing weeds associated with wheat crop. 2-Evaluation of the effect of the different population densities of S. arvensis on growth and yield of wheat. 3- Evaluation the efficacy and selectivity of the herbicides 2,4. D, Topik and Puma, alone or in tank- mixtures for weed control in wheat. 4- Evaluation of the effect of time of application of 2,4. D on its activity against broad- leaved weeds and its selectivity on wheat crop. Results obtained from the four experiments revealed great reductions in yield and yield components of wheat due to weed competition. The cultivar Wad Emil and Elnelein were least affected by the weed competion, while cultivar Condor was the most affected. The reductions in grain yield due to weed competition were greater in cultivar Condor compared to the two other cultivars. Increasing the seed rate of wheat from 120 kg/ha (the recommended seed rate) to 180 kg/ha reduced weed dry weight significantly and hence increased grain yield of wheat. The reductions in grain yield of wheat due to weeds were reduced when wheat was sown at narrow inter- row spacing (10 cm). The lowest reduction in grain yield was obtained with narrow inter- row spacing (10 cm) compared to 20 or 30 cm iter- row spacing. Results revealed that the presence of S. arvensis with wheat crop caused significant reductions in yield and yield components. The reductions in grain yield increased with increasing densitses of S. arvensis (15%- 72% reduction in yield). At lowest density of S. arvensis, cultivars Wadi- Elnil and Elnelein were the least affected compared to cultivar Condor. However, at high density of S. arvensis (more than 14 plants/rn the three wheat cultivars were seriously affected. Results showed that the herbicides 2,4. D, Topik and Puma alone or in tank- mixtures possess high selectivity for wheat crop. The herbicides Topik and Puma gave excellent and lasting control against grassy weeds but failed to control broad- leaved weeds. The hebicides 2,4. D displayed excellent efficacy against broad- leaved weeds but had no effect on grassy weeds. On the other hand, the tank- mixtures of 2,4. D + Topik or 2,4.D + Puma gave excellent and lasting control against both broad- leaved and grassy weeds. The herbicides 2,4. D alone or in tank mixtures with Puma or Topik significantly increased wheat grain yield compared to the weedy- check and gave comparable yield to weed- free
August 2004
40 Pages
Weeds ;Weed Management ;Wheat ;Trilicum Aeslivum L. ;Northern Sudan