Observations on Transmission Pressure of Schistosomiasisin El Gezira Agricultural Scheme, Sudan

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Abd Allah, Ishtiag Hassan
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This investigation was conducted in Gezira Scheme to provide some elements of analytical epidemiology with special emphasis on parasite aggregation and dynamics related to the knowledge, attitude and practice of the people. In the parasitological survey, all villagers (seven village) and school children (13 schools) were examined microscopically for Bilharzia. In addition, a designed questionnaire was conducted to assess some socioeconomical factors influencing transmission pressure of the disease. Several variables that reflected the socioeconomic aspect and the population\\\\\\\'s way of life were strongly linked with the infection parameters e.g. age-class, gender, occupational category, educational level and ethnic groups. All infected villagers and school children were treated under medical supervision with an intensive health education programme. The investigated communities were properly approached, reflected in high percentages of cooperation in the epidemiological surveys, villagers and school children. Both types of Bilharzia were sporadically endemic in Gezira Scheme, the prevalence rates of S. mansoni among the villagers ranged between 3.4% to 32.8% and the GMEC from 111.5 to 259.7 epg. The equivalent figures of S. mansoni prevalence among the school children ranged between 2.4% to 31.7% and the GMEC ranged between 111.6 and 347.8 epg. Likewise, the two infection parameters of S. haematobium verified less proportionate among both villagers and school children, with residential variations. The study indicated significant variations in the gender-related overall prevalence and intensity of both types of Bilharzia. The monitoring of water-contacts reflected that the bulk of the contact frequencies, both males and females, were conducted between (09 - 01 PM), where the males overrode the females in the prolonged water-contacts. The prevalence rates gradually increased to peak at age-group (15 - 19) years, where declined and remained high throughout the age-classes (20 - 24) years, thenafter rose in the age-group (50 - 54) years old. Almost the same trends were observed in the excreted eggs, with two other peaks, at age-class (10 - 14) years and (35 - 39) years. In conjunction with the above, the water-contact observations ensured that the age-class (15 - 19) years had more frequent and long duration of water-contacts and exposure level. Many socioeconomic factors ensured to associate Bilharzia infections, including: educational level, occupational category accessibility of water-supply system and latrine, quality of building, number of rooms, proximity of residential sites to canalization systems, type, level and duration of water-contact activities. Factors influencing transmission pressure of infection in the surveyed communities were discussed considering the obtained results. Finally, based on the findings of the study, some effective measures for combating Bilharzia in the investigated villages were highly advocated and recommended
Observations, Transmission Pressure ,Schistosomiasisin, El Gezira Agricultural Scheme, Sudan