Impact of land use patterns on desertification In Algamoia Agricultural Project in Khartoum State.

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Ali Hamid Mohana, Abdalsslam
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The study was implemented to determine the impact of land use patterns on desertification in Gamoia project, west of White Nile River, Omdurman. Some land degradation indicators (physical-biological) were used in order to assess the current performance of the project (Hawasha). Soil samples were collected from five sites using auger from the following depths: (0-30cm, 30-60cm, 60-90cm) samples of water were collected from canal derived from White Nile and from a well. All samples were subjected to laboratory analysis. The chemical and physical analysis results showed that the land use patterns lead to some land degradation. Statistical analysis indicated significant difference (P<0.05) in most soil characteristics in the study area. The result showed that the vegetated land is affected by salinity with depth to reach more than 4 dS/m, while in the un-vegetated land (control) &shelterbelt salinity degree was less than 4dS/m. Soluble cations (Ca, Mg, and Na) were increased among sites with depth.CEC and exchangeable sodium has variation among sites and depths. The soil sample of the second terrace of the White Nile, followed the order clay (53.80), sand (36.33) and silt (27.13). The nitrogen was low and bicarbonate was nil. Magnesium, calcium and chloride were dominant in the soil of the area without clear difference among sites and depths. IV The results proved that canal water derived from White Nile is alkaline and suitable for irrigation and drinking (RSC 1.87); while the well water is not suitable for irrigation according to standard specification of the World Health Organization. (RSC 2.56) The deterioration can be controlled by some land management such as crop rotation, organic fertilization balanced with inorganic fertilizers usage. Establishment of shelterbelts and wind brakes will stop the sand encroachment.