Groundwater Quality and Pollution in Sinnar State,

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Tohida Yousif Mohamed, Yousuif
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The study area is located in Sennar State. It is a part of the Blue Nile and Mahabouba rift basins. It borders by the Blue Nile River in the eastern part of the state. The main objectives of this study is to achieve the identification of harmful mineral contents, determination of pollution to groundwater and finding possibilities of combatant, in addition to evaluation of groundwater quality in the study area to enhance sustainability for drinking purposes. Water samples are collected from different sources and sites of the study area (water yards, handpumps, haffirs, networks, as well as the households), and subjected to chemical and bacteriological analysis in order to identify the possible sources of pollution, and the concentration of harmful mineral contents. The study indicated that, 95.5 % of water samples collected from water yards in villages and towns are confirm (validate) with the desired limit of World Health Organization (WHO, 1993), and American Public Health Association (APHA, 2000th edition). Water from water yards is suitable and fit for human and animal consumption. All handpumps of both Mazmum and Dali areas are unfit for human and animal use, due to the high concentration of mineral contents (high fluoride and nitrate), and likely to be a problem at areas of saline zones, where large amounts of human and animal wastes had been deposited on the ground, in places where nitrate leached by rainfall, together with extensive use of inadequate excreta disposal facilities. The water from networks shows both faecal coliforms bacteria, while 20 % of water yards shows bacterial contamination. The analysis indicates that, haffirs suffer siltation, bank erosion, blockage of inlets and outlets, and partial filling, and also is subject to surface pollution due to accumulation of human wastes and animal dung's along the catchment area. In order to protect groundwater quality in the study area and minimize ground water pollution, many measures have been suggested and if properly implemented and strictly followed will have positive effects in protecting groundwater quality. These measures consider the character of local hydrogeology, well construction, surface protection of wells, and methods used for protecting the supply against pollution.
Groundwater Quality and Pollution in Sinnar State, Sudan