Conventional and Modern Techniques for Physico-Chemical Analysis of some Clays in Sudan Soils

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Aisha Abass, AbdAlla
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university Of Khartoum
To study the techniques of chemical and physical analysis of some Sudan Soils samples collected from Koalinite, montmorillonite, illites, Nile Clay from Northern Region of the Sudan as well as from other sites. The aim of the study is to conduct chemical analysis of these soils as by gravimetric and volumetric techniques and compare the results obtained to physical methods of analysis adopted recently like X-ray fluorescence as the latter is known as quick, fast, easy and less costive, while the former is accurate, costive and time consuming. The study highlights other determination like X-ray diffraction to study the mineral constituents of the soils, FTIR and Grain size Distribution. The equipment used by chemical analysis was laboratory ordinary glassware, Atomic Absorption, Flame-photometer, FTIR-8400. XRF, XRD, stack sieves, all of these apparatus were used with mandatory procedures. The results obtained from chemical analysis were as follows: loss on ignition were in the range 1.06 to 24%; SiO2 were in the range 20-70%; Al2O3 9 - 33%; Fe2O3 0.05-9.40%; MgO 2-10%; CaO 0.6-61.07; K2O, 0.1-3.6% and Na2O 0.11-4%, depending upon the type of soil whether koalinite, montmorillonite or illite. The XRF analysis showed some agreement to chemical analysis in loss on ignition, Fe2O3, Al2O3 and CaO, but differ in K2O, Na2O, SiO2 and MgO. Therefore, for quick determination by industry and other bodies like Geological Surveys Department who employ many samples, one can recommend to use XRF in determination of loss ignition, combined oxides and CaO. The determination obtained by grain size distribution were as follows: all samples are silty clays, sandy clays and pure silt. FTIR. The density in the range 2.3-2.57.XRD gave that the samples were montmorillonite,illite,kaolinite,mixed layers,dolomite,calcite,quartz……… .That will help in soil characterization for industry and research.
115 Pages
Conventional Modern Techniques ; Physico-Chemical Analysis some Clays Sudan Soils;Geochemistry clay minerals;X-ray fluorescence spectrometry XRF