EFFECT FO DIETARY PROTEIN ENERGY LEVELS ON PERFORMANCE OF DEBILITATED NUBIAN GOATS

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Date
2015-04-08
Authors
BABIKER, AISHA
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UOFK
Abstract
This study was conducted to investigate the performance and health of debilitated stray goats and effects on subsequent re-alimentation at different energy/protein ratios. Eighty adult apparently healthy female Nubian goats of a debilitated condition were surveyed in the field for the nutritional and health profiles. Data were collected on liveweight, management, clinical examination, blood complete haemogram, serum metabolic indicators, electrolytes and enzyme activities. Two experiments, each of twelve adult apparently normal female Nubian goats of a debilitated condition as selected for Experiment 1 were used. They were dvided into 4 groups to investigate the performance and health values on protein re-alimentation at 8%, 12%, 14% and 16%crude protein( CP) at constant energy 9 MJ ME/kg; and energy re-alimentation at 6, 8, 10 and 12 MJ ME/kg at constant 12% CP. In both experiments data were collected on performance, blood complete haemogram, serum metabolic indicators, electrolytes and enzyme activities. Half of the herds in the area were medium in size (10-20 heads). The Nubian goats were 93% of them and only 7% were local crosses. About 83% of the surveyed goats had body weight range of 20 – 30 kg. Herds were 86% managed in the range. The majority (86%) of goats feed on pasture with supplements offered at the end of grazing. Insemination occurs soley naturally. Most goats (45%) conceive once per annum. Lactating goats spent 2-6 month on lactation. Ninety percent of the herd looked normal in appearance. Foreign body appeared in 9% of the goats. Internal parasites infestation detected was mild to moderate coccidia , mild strongyloides and moderate monieziasis. Mixed infestations were seen. Values for white cells were within the normal range. RBCs count was very low; MCV and MCH values were very high. Values, Hb, PCV and MCHC were within the normal limits. Serum metabolites, enzymes and minerals tested fell within the normal ranges except for LDH which was found high. For protein realimentation at constant energy, feed intake and daily body weight directly varied with the crude protein content in the diet and and both were higher in group D (16% CP). The highest crude protein-fed Group D had the best feed conversion ratio. All of the growth rates were inferior to the control group with Group C growing at a superior rate to the other experimental groups. All of the red cells and their indices, white and differential white cells of the test groups, were not affected by the increase in CP in the diet, except number and percentage of neutrophils which were decreased (p>0.05) in all test groups. Most metabolites and calcium were not affected by the increase of crude protein in the diet. Creatinine increased (p>0.05) in all test groups, while phosphorus increased significantly (p<0.05)with crude protein increase in all test groups. The AST activity decreased (p>0.05) with the increase of crude protein in the diet. For energy realimentation at constant protein, feed intake was lowest in group D and highest in group B. Body weight gain was lowest in group D goats fed the highest energy level. The goats fed lowest energies (groups B and C) had food conversion ratios11.10 and 10.50 respectively, while group D (highest energy) had the best feed conversion ratio (10.10). Growth rates of groups B and D were inferior to the control group (0.72). Group C coefficient (0.87) is superior to the control group. The RBCs and their indices were not affected by the increase of ME in the diet. WBC and lymphocytes were also not affected by the increase of ME in the diet. Lymphocytes increased (p>0.05) in number and percentage in all test groups while neutrophils decreaed in number and percentage (p<0.05) in test groups Cand D. Grouped basophils, eosinophils and monocytes decreased (p>0.05) in number and percentage in all test groups. Glucose, albumin, creatinine, calcium and AST values were not affected (p>0.05) by the increase of ME in the diet. Group D only showed a significant (p<0.05) decrease in total protein and globulin. Phosphorus increased significantly (p<0.05) in all test groups. Adult debilitated goats though look unthrifty, yet healthy enough to survive shortages in feed and discrepant management. Due to their age (adulthood) and the low plane of nutrition received during their growth phase, no compensatory growth can be expected.
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