Prevalence and Characterization of Rotavirus Recovered in Khartoum State, Sudan

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Magzoub, Magzoub Abbas
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Background Human rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhoea among children less than 5 years of age. It causes 610,000-870,000 deaths each year worldwide. Rotavirus is dsRNA. According to VP4 and VP7 the rotavirus classified into P and G genotypes, respectively. At least, 27 G and 35 P have been described so far. Development of rotavirus vaccines have been a global health priority. In Sudan, the Rotarix® vaccine was introduced on 2011. To the best of our knowledge no characterization was conducted for rotavirus despite its potential impact in the implementation of vaccine. Based on the above mentioned information, a simpler approach to understand the rotavirus disease burden and the relative importance of circulating genotypes in Sudan through virus characterization is being described. Epidemiology of human rotavirus infection is scanty in the Sudan. This study was conducted before introduction of vaccine in Sudan and showed agreement of introducing of vaccine. The objectives were to: 1. Determine the prevalence of rotavirus among Sudanese children. 2. Identify the molecular characterization of VP4 and VP7 genotypes of rotavirus strain among Sudanese children. Methods This study was a cross sectional study, conducted among Sudanese children less than 5 years of age who suffered from acute gastroenteritis in hospital settings. The laboratory procedures were performed in the National Public Health Laboratory, Sudan and the University Kebangsaan, Malaysia. Seven hundred and fifty five stool samples were collected in a dry, clean and wide mouth screw capped container and placed in an ice chest and sent directly to the Laboratory and preserved in -80oC. Rotavirus positive samples were identified by ELISA technique and RNA was extracted using the QIAamp® viral RNA mini kit. Omniscript® Reverse Transcription kit was used to convert RNA to cDNA. PCR was done for both VP4 and VP7 using HotStarTaq®Plus PCR kit. The PCR products were sequenced and the results were compared with genbank strains. Results Of the 755 children, 430(57%) were males and 325(43%) were females. The age of children ranged between 1 to 60 months with a mean of 15.6 ± 13.3 months. 121 (16%) stool samples were infected with rotavirus of whom 79(65%) were males and 42(35%) were females. The continuous diarrhoea and vomiting together were encountered in 86% of rotavirus infected children and the 14% were infected with either diarrhoea or vomiting. 48 out of 121 positive samples were sequenced for VP4 and VP7 and 40(83%) of them showed more than 98% similarity to G1P8 while 8(17%) showed more than 98% similarity to G9P8 when compared with the genbank strains. Conclusion The VP4 and VP7 were selected for sequencing, because of their important impact upon vaccine development. The presence of G1P8 as predominant strain (83%) and G9P8 (17%) in this study is in agreement with the introduction of the vaccine in Sudan. Hence, reduction of the rate of severe disease is anticipated. Since this study is hospital-based, the prevalence rate (16%) and the detected strains may not reflect the true prevalence and real circulated strains thus a community-based surveillance is needed.
Prevalence, Characterization, Rotavirus Recovered, Khartoum State, Sudan