The status of dairy herd structure and husbandry practices in preurban areas of Khartoum State, Sudan

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ElYas, Ibtisam
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This study showed current dairy management and husbandry practices in 60 dairy farms at different preurban areas of Khartoum, Khartoum North and Omdurman of Khartoum State (20 farms from each town). Information about dairy management was collected by questionnaire and direct interview with farms' owners. The results indicated that there were significant differences in education levels of dairy farms' owners. Khartoum dairy farms' owners' exhibit higher illiteracy level (35%), Khartoum North (I 5%) and Omdurman (30%). Significant differences (P < 0.05) were obtained in herd size and herd structure. Moreover, dairy herd numbers were 170.25± 72.83, 123.10± 105.71 and 92.35± 29.23 in Khartoum North, Khartoum and Omdurman, respectively. Breed type revealed non-significant differences between the three cities. However, 92% of the cattle in the studied farms were grade cattle and mainly they were of unknown foreign blood percentages. Ideal building materials, health set up, design and different management practices rarely practiced in preurban dairy farms at Khartoum State and they were only restricted to 9 farms (45%) in Khartoum and 6 farms (30%) in Khartoum North. Corrugated iron roof, concrete flour, strip cup dip and teat dipping, machine milking and mastitis prevention practices were reported to be very rare. Concerning the health services and preventive measures, the diseases control were not satisfactory, only 10% of the studied dairy farms had resident veterinarian. Vaccinations against diseases were rarely used in regular way. General hygiene and sanitation measures such as dung removal, disinfection, cleaning program and maintaining minimal contamination during milking process could not be observed in the majority of dairy farms studied. Also disposal of abnormal milk were applied directly in the pens in 83% of the farms. Moreover, testing, isolation and culling practices were not common. The highest numbers of aborted cows at late pregnancy were showed in 1-16 dairy farms in Khartoum. Similarly mastitis, which was found in 14 farms, in Khartoum and the cases ranged from 1-5 cases. The present study concluded that the majority of farms were poorly constructed and they are with limited management skills.. This might create health risk and environmental contaminations. Hence provision of essential services and extension services among dairy farmers, labours and milkers were urgently needed on dairy faming practices such as housing, milking techniques and hygiene, proper sanitary practices and cleaning programs, diseases prevention measures and culling strategy.
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status,dairy,herd,structure,husbandry,practices,preurban, Sudan