A Study Of Feeding Sesame Seed Industrial Residue To Small Ruminants

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Date
2015-04-05
Authors
ElBaih, Ali Mahmoud Ali
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UOFK
Abstract
The present research was conducted to evaluate inclusion of sesame seed by-products in diets for finishing rams and goats. A total of 16 non-castrated rams were used in the study. They were divided into four groups of 4 animals each. Each animal was put in a pen and individually fed. Their average initial liveweights were 25.25, 25.25, 25.13 and 25.25 kg per head, respectively. Their ages ranged between 6 – 7 months. Animals were kept for a period of nine weeks plus two weeks adaptation period and fed on the experimental diets. Four rations were formulated from sesame seed hull, sesame seed husk, and wheat bran. Ration A consisted of 50% sesame seed hull and 50% sesame seed husk (a byproduct of processing sesame seed- from tahnea sweet factories). Ration B, consisted of 45% sesame seed hull, 45% sesame seed husk and 10% wheat bran. Ration C consisted of 40% sesame seed hull, 40% sesame seed husk and 20% wheat bran. Ration D consisted of 35% sesame seed hull, 35% sesame seed husk and 30% wheat bran. Salt lick blocks were available all the time. In addition, green fodder was given at a rate of one kg/head weekly as vitamin A source. Average daily liveweight gain for rams fed ration A, B, C, and D was 44.92, 83.33, 90.00 and 58.25 grams, respectively. Average dry matter intake for ration A, B, C and D were 664.70, 1178.80, 1056.70 and 1068.70 grams, respectively.A total of 16 non-castrated Nubian kids were involved in the study. They were divided into four groups of 4 animals each. Each animal was put in a pen and fed individually. Their average initial liveweight was 10.88, 10.75, 10.88 and 10.75 kg/head, respectively. Ages ranged between 3 – 4 months. Kid groups were randomly divided among the experimental diet A, B, C and D. Animal were kept for a period of nine weeks plus two weeks adaptation period. They were fed on ad-libitum basis and on the same rations that were fed to rams earlier. Salt lick blocks were available all the times. In addition, green fodder was given at a rate of one kg/head weekly as vitamin A source. Average daily liveweight gain for ration A, B, C, and D were −7.94, 4.92, 6.03 and 10.95 grams, respectively. Average daily dry matter intake per kid from the ration A, B, C and D were 158.33, 208.00, 274.67 and 338.50 grams, respectively. A digestibility trial was carried out in rams using total collection method. Two animals from each treatment were randomly selected and given the same ration that have been fed to them. Feed intake and faeces output were recorded daily for 8 days on an individual basis. The apparent digestibility values for ration A were 39.29, 48.01, 73.75, 45.35, 29.56 and 74.45 for dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), crude protein (CP), crude fibre (CF) and ether extract (EE), respectively. As for ration B digestibility values were 43.75, 51.01, 73.54, 58.23, 50.09 and 64.04 for DM, OM, NDF, CP, CF, EE respectively; for ration C digestibility values were 48.10, 55.83, 18 76.51, 58.80, 56.48, and 77.72 for DM, OM, NDF, CP, CF and EE, respectively; for ration D digestibility values were 48.82, 56.99, 78.26, 59.84, 49.34 and 85.51 for DM, OM, NDF, CP, CF and EE, respectively. The dry matter degradability for ration A, B, C and D was determined using nylon bag technique in a fistulated steer. The periods of incubation were 0, 4, 8, 16, 24, 48 and 72 hours. Samples of zero hour represented water soluble fraction. Dry matter degradability for the easily degradable fraction (a) and the slowly degradable fraction (b) were 14.65 and 65.08 for ration A; 20.57 and 62.84 for ration B; 27.49 and 58.90 for ration C; 24.84 and 57.30 for ration D. Degradation rate (c) of slowly degradable fraction (b) was 0.10, 0.08, 0.07 and 0.10 for the ration A, B, C and D, respectively. Effective degradability (ED) at rumen outflow rate of 2%, 5% and 8% were 68.33, 57.53 and 50.63 for ration A; 70.47, 58.77 and 51.63 for ration B; 72.70, 61.07 and 54.20 for ration C; 72.77, 63.37 and 57.03 for ration D. Lag time (LT) were 2.13, 0.93, 0.00 and 0.23 for ration A, B, C and D, respectively. Potential degradability (PD) were 79.33, 83.43, 86.40 and 82.13 for ration A, B, C and D, respectively. Carcasses of rams and kids were evaluated for meat quantity and quality. Average dressing percentage was 39.45, 39.23, 44.35 and 43.94 for the rams fed on ration A, B, C and D, respectively. 19 Regarding meat quality attributes water holding capacity (WHC) values were 1.31, 1.45, 1.14 and 1.22 for ration A, B, C and D, respectively. In sensory evaluation meat colour of rams lightness, redness and yellowness was 38.90, 13.55 and 7.80 for ration A; 37.25, 12.60 and 7.15 for ration B; 35.30, 12.10 and 3.65 for ration C; 37.60, 13.45 and 5.10 for ration D. Average dressing percentage was 45.90, 45.52, 42.14 and 45.74 for kids fed ration A, B, C and D, respectively. For meat quality attributes water holding capacity (WHC) values were 1.29, 1.68, 1.35 and 1.75 for ration A, B, C and D, respectively. In sensory evaluation meat colour of kids lightness, redness and yellowness was 35.30, 12.45 and 5.70 for ration A; 35.40, 13.80 and 6.95 for ration B; 33.35, 12.80 and 5.10 for ration C; 32.40, 11.75 and 5.85 for ration D.
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