Studies on bovine Dermatophilosis in Southern Darfur State

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Musa Sayed Musa Adam, Adam
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The present investigation was carried out in south Darfur State in 1999. Prevalence rate of bovine dermatophilosis among the surveyed cattle (9409) in South Darfour State in 1999 was 4.62% whereas the prevalence rate among inspected herds (108) was 74.07%. Mortality due to the infection among the total cattle was 1.04% whereas 49.07% of the herd owners reported death due to bovine dermatophilosis in their herds. In the sedentary cattle, the prevalence rate among cattle and herds was 7.82% and 100%, respectively. In nomad herds the prevalence was 3.04% and 50.96% among cattle and herds, respectively. While the prevalence rates among adult females and males and calf females and males were 3.7%, 2.14%, 2.06% and 2.03%, respectively. The characteristic forms of D. congolensis, the causative agent of bovine dermatophilosis were identified in 97.52% of the 161 of skin scraping samples, using for the first time crushed scab method and Giemsa's stain. However, the diagnostic sensitivity of the conventional maceration of the scab method and Gram’s stain procedure was only 46.58%. The new direct isolation method in connection with decontaminants incorporated media (polymixin-β- sulphate and Nystatin or Ketoconazole) gave excellent results compared to those of maceration and embedding methods. Twenty eight D. congolensis strains were recovered using the direct isolation method, identified and were then used for subsequent experiments. Successful characterization of D. congolensis was achieved on the basis of morphological, cultural and biochemical properties as well as enzymatic activities. The study suggested a rapid identification scheme for the causal agent of bovine dermatophilosis by a combination of morphological characteristics and enzymatic activities using API ZYM kits. The experimental treatment in naturally and experimentally infected cattle with D. congolensis showed that gentamycin was the most effective antibiotic in terms of recovery rate, relapse prevention, survival period and in increasing weight gain. This is followed by a combination of penicillin and streptomycin and then long acting oxytetracycline and the least effective was enrofloxacin. The study investigated influence of natural and experimentally induced bovine dermatophilosis on blood and serum constituents and live weight gain and alternations in these values following parenteral antibiotic administration. Parenteral injection of these antibiotics resulted in significant increase (P < 0.05) in the values of cholesterol, calcium, globulin, total protein and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration. While no significant changes observed in the control group. A significant increase (P < 0.05) was, also, detected in the values of red blood corpuscular count and weight gain in all groups except that of enrofloxacin and control groups. Antibiotics administration also led to a significant decrease in the values of mean corpuscular volume, white blood corpuscular count and serum phosphate level. Such changes were not seen in the control group.
Studies on bovine Dermatophilosis in Southern Darfur State