The Domestic Pigeons (Columba Livia Domestica) As Bioindicator Of Zinc, Lead And Cadmium Contamination In Khartoum State, Sudan

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Tawassul Mahadi Gassim, Mahadi
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This study aimed to proof and evidence that pigeon (Columba livia domestica) is a good bioindicator to environmental pollution with heavy metals lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) and the trace element zinc (Zn). Ninty samples of C. livia were collected from different areas in Khartoum State divided to rural, urban and industrial areas. According to the results of feather, tissues (liver and kidney) and serum analysis especially in industrial areas, pigeons could serve as consider successful indicators for contamination and pollution resulting from habitat and gregarious behaviors of pigeon. This study showed that the three metals have significant effects on hematological and biochemical parameters of tissues and feathers. By feeding pigeons two doses (2.5& 5g/kg) of zinc oxide (Zn2O3), lead acetate Pb(CH3COO)2 and cadmium chloride (CdCl2) in separated groups for 4 weeks. A low dose of zinc oxide (2.5g/kg) increased red blood cells (RBCs), hemoglobin concentration (Hb), total protein, albumin, glucose concentrations and levels of zinc (Zn) in serum, liver and feathers and decreased uric acid and levels of zinc (Zn) in kidney with no mortality in the birds. A high dose of zinc oxide (5g/kg) increased total protein, globulin and creatinine and decreased packed cell volume (PCV), albumin, uric acid and zinc (Zn) levels in feathers with a relatively high mortality in this group of birds 69.2%. Lead acetate with low dose 2.5g/kg increased albumin, glucose and lead (Pb) levels in liver and kidney whereas decreased Hb, PCV and lead (Pb) levels in serum and feathers with mortality in birds level 15.4%; a high dose 5g/kg increased RBCs, Hb, total protein concentrations and lead (Pb) levels in liver, kidney and feather and a decrease in PCV, glucose, uric acid concentrations and levels of lead (Pb) in serum with 30.8% mortality, both doses of lead acetate reduced the live weight of pigeons. Both doses (2.5g/kg and 5k/kg) of cadmium chloride have similar effects on elevated RBCs count, Hb%, total protein, globulin and creatinine concentrations and decreased on PCV, albumin and glucose concentrations, with (69.2%) mortality in birds. Although significant increasing in live weight of pigeons, also reduced in uric acid by low dose of CdCl2 were shown. This study demonstrated significant correlations between three metals in target tissues, serum and feather. It is observed that a positive relation between zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) in serum, kidney and feather, but antagonistic effect in liver. A positive relation between zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) were found in the kidney, while a negative correlation was observed between lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in liver.
environmental pollution, DOMESTIC PIGEONS, metals