Aerobic Bacteria Associated with Respiratory Tract Infections of Camel (Camelus dromedarius), Isolation and Identification.

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Nasr,Nagem Adien Suliman
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University of Khartoum
Respiratory infections of the camels (Camelus dromedarius) have been investigated in animals brought to Tamboul Market -Butana region, East Central Sudan- for slaughter. This area is densely populated with camels. The animals were examined for obvious respiratory signs in antemortem and for lung lesions at post-mortem inspection. The clinical signs observed were labored breathing, cough and nasal discharges. The observed pulmonary lesions were different stages of consolidation, red hepatization, pulmonary abscesses and adhesion with pleura. Out of the fifty animals from which samples were taken, 9 showed respiratory signs without lung lesions, 23 showed both respiratory signs and lung lesions and 18 showed pulmonary lesions without any signs. The incidence of the infection and influence of age, general condition of the animal and environmental conditions were recorded. Out of the 323 examined camels, 50 were infected (15.5%). The highest incidence was in autumn (22.3%) and the lowest was in summer (9%). It was noticed that older animals with poor general condition were more susceptible to respiratory infections. A total of 200 samples were collected. They consisted of 50 nasal swabs, 50 tracheal swabs, 50 lung tissue and 50 bronchial lymph nodes, from which 357 isolates were obtained. A number of 144 bacteria were isolated from nasal cavity, in order of abundance these were: Coagulase (-ve) Staphylococci (50%), Bacillus spp. (44%), Escherichia coli (36%), Diphteroids (34%), alpha-hemolytic Streptococci (20%), 9 coagulase (+ve) Staphylococci (18%), Actinomyces pyogenes (16%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (16%), Alcaligenes faecalis (14%), Streptococcus pyogenes (8%), Micrococcus luteus (8%), Diplococcus pneumoniae (4%), Bordetella bronchiseptica (4%), Pasteurella haemolytica biotype A (4%), Haemophillus somnus (4%), mixed flora (4%), Micrococcus kristinae (2%) and Pasteurella multocida (2%). A number of 53 bacteria were isolated from trachea, in order of abundance these were: Bacillus spp. (20%), coagulase (-ve) Staphylococci (14%), Diphteroids (12%), Escherichia coli (12%), Actinomyces pyogenes (8%), Bordetella bronchiseptica (8%), Alcaligenes faecalis (8%), coagulase (+ve) Staphylococci (6%), alphahemolytic Streptococci (4%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (4%), Diplococcus pneumoniae (2%), Micrococcus luteus (2%), Micrococcus kristinae (2%), Haemophillus somnus (2%) and mixed flora (2%). A number of 81 bacteria were isolated from lung tissue, in order of abundance these were: Actinomyces pyogenes (28%), Bacillus spp. (26%), coagulase (-ve) Staphylococci (20%), Diphteroids (20%), coagulase (+ve) Staphylococci (16%), Streptococcus pyogenes (10%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (10%), alpha-hemolytic Streptococci (8%), Pasteurella haemolytica biotype A (8%), Diplococcus pneumoniae (6%) and Escherichia coli (6%). A number of 79 bacteria were isolated from bronchial lymph nodes, in order of abundance these were: Coagulase (-ve) Staphylococci (36%), Bacillus spp. (28%), Escherichia coli (16%), Diphteroids (14%), coagulase (+ve) Staphylococci (12%), Actinomyces pyogenes (10%), alpha-hemolytic Streptococci (8%), Streptococcus pyogenes (6%), Corynebacterium equi (6%), Citrobacter freundii (6%), Pasteurella 10 multocida (4%), Pasteurella haemolytica biotype A (4%), Pasteurella haemolytica biotype T (4%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (2%) and Citrobacter koseri (2%). Bacillus spp., Diphteroids, coagulase (-ve) Staphylococci and Escherichia coli were the predominant microorganisms isolated in this study. Actinomyces pyogenes, coagulase (+ve) Staphylococci and Pasteurella haemolytica biotype A were associated with the most severe lung lesions, while Streptococcus pyogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Diplococcus pneumoniae were isolated from mild lesions. In this study Haemophillus somnus, Micrococcus spp. and Bordetella bronchiseptica were isolated for the first time from respiratory tract of camels.
109 Pages
Respiratory ;Tract,Camel;Aerobic ;Bacteria;Camel;BVD;