Obesity and Pregnancy Outcome

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Awad, Mohammed
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Obesity is a nutrition problem of modern society, its prevalence is rising so rapidly in many countries. In this study the effect of obesity on maternal and perinatal outcomes was studied. This is a descriptive prospective study carried out in three main maternity units in the period 15th January to 15th September 2002. Information were collected from patients presented to the labour room in Khartoum teaching Hospital, Omdurman Maternity Hospital and Soba University Hospital using a questionnaire. A sum of 226 cases were classified according to the body mass index (BMI) into two groups. 1. Morbidly obese women, BMI ≥ 40 (n=71). 2. Non-obese including normal and over weight women, BMI≤ 29.5 (n=155). Most of the study population were in the age group 30 –39 years (44%) and more than half were from urban areas (58%). The parous women constitute 71.7% of the study sample. Cross tabulation was done between obesity and maternal and neonatal variables. There was significant association between maternal obesity and gestational diabetes (P<0.025), pregnancy induced hypertension IX (P≤0.020), induction of labour (P≤0.010) and emergency caesarean section (P < 0,020). There is also significant association between obesity and birth weight ≥ 4000g, and increased mean birth weight (P≤ 0.001). There is no significant association between obesity and birth weight <2500g. The study did not show significant association between obesity and antenatal glucosuria, proteinuria, antepartum hamorrhage, breech presentation, or preterm labour. There was no significant association between obesity and genital tract injury, shoulder dystocia, low sex ratio (male : female ratio), delayed conception or congenital malformation. The study concluded that obesity is a risk factor for adverse maternal outcome, operative delivery and adverse neonatal outcome. Optimization of maternal weight before pregnancy is recommended.
Obesity,Regulatory obesity,Metabolic obesity,Constitutional obesity