Effect of IDA/ID and PEM on Cognitive Ability among Grade One Basic School Pupils in Omdurman, Sudan

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Hager E. A., Mohamed
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This study was undertaken in Greater Omdurman. (Omdurman, Karai and Um bda Localities) to assess the prevalence of PEM and IDA/ID and their impact on cognitive ability among grade one basic school pupils. The sample consists of 353 pupils aged 6-7 years from 20 basic government schools. Two hundred and ten of them were control group and 143 were study group. A questionnaire was used to collect information on the pupils' age, sex, anthropometry, dietary intake, disease episodes and blood investigation; (haemoglobin level and serum ferritin). Cognitive ability was measured by Raven Colored Progressive Matrix for children (non-verbal test), which adopted for Sudanese children. Results showed that among grade one pupils 59.5% were adequate iron, 25.5% suffered IDA one quarter of them had moderate and severe IDA and 15% suffered ID. The prevalence rates of both IDA/ID were higher among the females than among the males. Cognitive ability was significantly reduced by both IDA and ID among grade one pupils. The lowering effect of IDA was higher than that of ID (P<0.04). The prevalence rate of PEM among grade one pupils was18.4% underweight, 20.7% wasted and 8.8% stunted. The nutritional status, neither wasting nor underweight affected cognitive ability. And stunting significantly lowered cognitive ability. The study concluded that, prevalence of IDA and ID lowered cognitive ability among grade one pupils. Stunting was the only nutritional indicator that negatively influenced cognitive ability. To improve of the existing situation the study recommends in nutrition education and formulate sustainable strategies to combat iron deficiency and iron deficiency anaemia by food –based approaches to increase iron intake through food fortification and dietary diversification among basic school pupils in Khartoum State, especially females, hence their health and cognitive ability
IDA/ID,PEM,Cognitive Ability ,Grade,e Basic School Pupils,Omdurman, Sudan