الصومال في مرحلة ما بعد تفكك الدولة دور القبيلة والمجتمع الدولي والمجتمع المدني

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Date
2015-06-13
Authors
محمد أحمد الشيخ علي, علي
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Abstract
The aim of this study is to discuss the role of the Tribe, The International Community, and the civil society in Somalia in the period 1991 - 1999. The major questions in this study are : the role of the tribe, the world community and the civil society socially, economically and politically, the co-ordination between these factors, and to what extent can peace and reconciliation be achieved if the efforts of these factors are put together towards the rehabilitation of Somali state?. The study uses historical, descriptive and analytical research methodologies. The study relies on the Arabic, English, and Somali references which the researcher attained from public and private libraries in Sudan, Saudi Arabia, Djibouti and Somalia, besides the reports and documents from the UN, other international organizations, civil society organizations, and Somali peace conferences. In addition to the information that was received from the personal interviews with the politicians, academicians, tribal leaders, clerics, staff of international Organizations, the chairpersons of the civil society organizations, and the informations from the Somali and non Somali websites. Besides these sources the study relied on the personal observation of the researcher during his field trip to Djibouti and Somalia which lasted from the 17th May to 3rd Oct. 2000. The study reached the following conclusions:- 1- The tribe played a very vital role in affecting political activities in Somalia, both positively and negatively. 2- The lack of clear strategy in the operation of intervention, the failure of the international forces in standing a neutral position in Somali tribal conflict, the lack of cooperation with the civil society and those who have experience in the Somali community, the lack of Interco-ordination, and weakness of its performance, and the lack of awareness about political and social complications of the Somali community; were among other reasons behind the failure of the international community in solving the Somali political crisis, despite the partial success of its humanitarian work. 3- The active elements in the civil society which affected the social, economical and political life of the Somali community within the period 1991-1999 were the non-governmental organizations, Islamic groups, and The Private sector. 4- Lack of co-ordination between the efforts of the tribe, the world community, and the civil society in Somalia led to failure of political efforts aimed at solving the political crisis in Somalia. 5- The co-ordination between the efforts of the world community and local community e.g. clans and civil society organizations were behind the success achieved by the Djibouti Somali peace process in the year 2000.
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