The Role of Adult-Continuing Education in Human Rights with special emphasis on Equal Educational opportunities among the Pastoral Hawzma nomadic people in some selected areas of Kordofan

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Faraq,Alawia Ibrahim
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University of Khartoum
This thesis seeks to investigate the role of adult-continuing education in providing equitable educational opportunities for Hawzma nomadic people of Awlad Ali, Awlad Maada, Awlad Jomaa, Awlad Tadoo, Awlad Ghaboosh, Dar Ali and Toogia who are moving within the areas of Talodi, Abu Gobiha, Tagmla, Rashad, Omparampita, Om Barka, Abu Karshola (Southern Kordofan State), Elrahad and Elobeid surroundings of the northern Kordofan State. The main concern of thesis is with the provision of flexible educational accesses for nomadic people (adults and children), so that, they satisfy their basic rights and needs to different kinds of knowledge which will also provide them with knowledge about the principles of basic human rights and enable them to live a satisfactory human life. The researcher randomly selected and interviewed (using the questionnaire technique) about 150 parents, 100 children and youth 10 local nomadic leaders, 5 teachers and the Unicef.-education co-ordinator (Kordofan) in addition to the discussion she held with the directors of nomadic education administration in Elobeid and the Federal administration of nomadic education in Khartoum. Moreover, group discussions and consultations with nomadic people are also held by the researcher in regard to the issue of their education. The general characteristics of the Hawzma nomadic people, the main obstacles and constraints in education, the identification and definitions of the educational needs, interests, the preferable time for schooling, preferable schools, preferable subjects for adults and preferable curriculum for children and youth, the preferable teachers beside the practical active role of the local leaders and the Unicef organization are all investigated. The collected data is statistically analyzed using the SPSS (statistical Packages for Social Sciences) technique by applying the chi-square test for hypotheses testing. The findings of the research tend to show the facts that, the Hawzma nomadic people lack the opportunities of gaining education. The illiteracy rate among the adults estimated to be (71.3%) and (65%) among the children and youth. However, the situation of women and girls education is more worse than that of men and boys. The literacy rate among women is not more than (10%) . This is attributed to the dominant gender system in the Hawzma nomadic people and the influence of the traditions and customs which prefers the girls’ early marriage (13 years old) which negatively affect her enrollment and continuation in the education, adding to this the heavy load of the domestic activities that always contradict the time- allocated for schooling. The statistical findings in this area are highly significant (P= 0.001) and X2 = 10.81). Again the Hawzma nomadic male children and youth play an important role in the family’s production system (the herding of the animals, the indicators of wealth, social status and the main source of income) because of this, their attendance in the schools is found to be very poor. There is statistical evidence reflecting the relation ship between their occupational role and their ability to join and continue in the schools (P = 0.002. X2 = 9.871). For the compatibility of the curriculum to the nomads’ needs, it is found that although, there is an on going complain among the nomadic people about the school curriculum in being centralized and not reflecting their mode of living and peculiar culture and needs, the teaching of the national curriculum (but with adaptations and accommodations to these needs) is necessary because it will guarantee chances for further competition for higher educational places and creating national unity among all Sudanese citizens. Education is an essential condition for acquiring knowledge about human rights. In this sense it is an opportunity to gain knowledge about the principles of human rights and since nomadic people are not provided with access to basic education, they lack the opportunity to come to know their rights to claim them. Therefore, their education is urgent to end this ignorance and live in society with equal justice. There is statistical evidence for this relation between schooling and knowledge about rights( P = 0.024, X2 = 5.095). The teachers for the nomadic people (adults and children) are prefered to be with a nomadic background, enthusiastic, interested, patient and continuously trained as comprehensive change-agents in order to adjust the curriculum to the learners needs and mode of living. The local nomadic leaders are found to be playing an important role in sensitizing, mobilizing their people for the necessity of freeing their children and youth for education and initiating the establishment of the schools which are done by the state ministry of education and financially supported by the Unicef- organization. In conclusion, the researcher reached to the point that, though the right of every individual to basic education is recognized in the Sudan, nevertheless, it is not fully satisfied for Hawzma nomadic people due to many reasons among them: The conditions of nomads’ movements and harsh environmental life; the physical remoteness, the central role of the children and youth in their family and their negative societal attitudes towards the importance of education. Furthermore, it is realized by the researcher, during the consultations and discussions with the Hawzma nomadic people, that, they are in urgent need for education. The findings showed their keen interests and need in having education. About (76.7%) adults are interested in receiving education and about (98.7%) are interested in educating their children and youth but because of their social characteristics and mode of living, their presence in the formal educational system can not be guaranteed. Therefore, the researcher thought of an educational system that would be acceptable, preferable and suitable to nomadic people accommodating their needs and reflecting their culture. This education could be provided through a model of adult-continuing education that is characterized by flexibility, variety and extension. The model proposed by the researcher consists of nine flexible integrated units , bearing in mind; the preferable subjects for adults and children/youth as viewed by the nomads themselves; the harsh environmental conditions; the well trained enthusiastic teachers and facilitators. The units of the model are: Mobile school, adult literacy, adolescent education, Radio lesson, primary health and environmental education, education for, combating harmful traditional practices, conflict-resolution and peace education, some aspects of nomads culture and Folklore, and Islamic religious knowledge. It is hoped that, these units of the model will provide the Hawzma nomadic people with a variety of educational opportunities through which their different right’s to different basic knowledge’s will be satisfied. The duty of providing this education is a co-operative duty in which all participate: The government, parents, fellow citizens, and other organizations interested in the issue of nomads education
368 Pages
Education; Human Rights; Khartoum; people; society; children ; school; Radio; Southern Kordofan