The Environmental Impact of Gaseous By- Products and Pollutants in Waste Water at Khartoum Refinery

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Osman, Hind Abdel Moneim Khogali
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Sudan has become one of the oil producing countries since 2000 . Petroleum as an energy source represents 16 % of the energy balance of the country. The processes of prospecting, transportation, refining and utilization of petroleum may have serious negative impacts on the environment. This study focuses on the determination of the nature and concentration of the main gases ensuing during the process of oil refining, as well as the determination of pollutants in waste water at Khartoum Refinery. Also, investigation into means and ways adopted by the Refinery to reduce the negative impact of those pollutants on the environment are reviewed. The gaseous by- products analyzed include SO2, NOX and CO. The waste water pollutants analyzed include the pH, oil and grease , sulphides, phenols, nitrogen and ammonia , the total suspended solids (TSS) , the biological oxygen demand (BOD),and the chemical oxygen demand (COD). It is found that the analytical results of the gaseous by –products are compatible with the Chinese, Global Bank Guide and The Sudanese Standards. The results of the analyses of the pollutants in the outlet waste water after treatment are compatible with the Chinese and Sudanese Standards as regards oil and grease ;phenols; nitrogen and ammonia; the total suspended solids ; the biological oxygen demand and the sulphide .This demonstrates the effectiveness of the treatment methods adopted by the Refinery in dealing with the above –mentioned gaseous by-products and water pollutants . However, the methods adopted in controlling the pH and the chemical oxygen demand needs revising. Some recommendations are proposed in order to curb the impact of this industry on the environment.
Environmenta, Products ,Pollutants,Waste ,Water ,Khartoum ,Refinery.