Assessment of Drinking Water Quality for Human, Animal and Food Processing in Khartoum

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Samia Mohammed A/Rahman Mahmoud
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University of Khartoum
This study was done to investigate the drinking water quality intended for human, animal consumption and food processing. Twenty two water sources from Khartoum and Khartoum North area were selected (Eleven from each area) as follows: Six samples source from well water of different food processing plants (bottled water ,milling , food , dairy and milk factory) and five different locations of tap water of main distribution system ( mixed animal farm , public and private hospitals and residential house. A total of sixty six samples were collected three from each sample sources to estimate the mean value of each parameters examined. Samples were subjected to microbiological physical, and chemical examinations and analyzed to investigate the level of health hazards in each sample . All water samples collected were transferred to Al Morgan Central Laboratory for water safety for examination of Microbial, Physical and Chemical contaminants, Soil Science Dept. Laboratory (Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum for analysis of trace minerals contaminants and Laboratory of Institutes of Environmental Studies, University of Khartoum for the analysis of heavy metals. Results obtained were compared with international and national drinking water guidelines in attempt to evaluate the quality of drinking water in Khartoum State. This study revealed that raw well water of some location in Khartoum and Khartoum North was polluted by total coliform and total count bacteria and the analysis results does not cope with international (WHO,1993) and national Sudanese Standard Methodology Organization (SSMO, 2002) and Khartoum Water Corporation (KWC, 2002) standards. After treatment pollution incidence in raw well water samples decreased, however, slight pollution occur in some water samples after treatment. From the physical and chemical analysis this study showed that the raw well water samples examined for turbidity, sodium , chloride exceeds the permissible level of WHO (1993) and Sudanese Standard Meteorology Organization (2002) standards. Concentration of heavy metals such as fluoride , nitrate , sulfate and water alkalinity does not agree with the national and international standards of WHO and SSMO. After treatment for raw well water, anions and cations concentrations cope with national and international standards of drinking water which proved treatment of water intended for drinking and food processing is important. Most of the tap water samples collected and examined from the main distribution sources are suitable for human and animal consumption and food processing. A set of recommendations were suggested to improve drinking water quality standards.
A Thesis Submitted to University of Khartoum in Partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Master of Science in Nutritional Science
University of Khartoum Drinking Water Human Animal Food Processing
Samia Mohammed A/Rahman Mahmoud, Assessment of Drinking Water Quality for Human,Animal and Food Processing in Khartoum .- Khartoum : University of Khartoum, 2006 .- 145p. : illus., 28cm., MS.c.