Prevalence of the Human Malaria Parasites among the Displaced People Rural Areas around Khartoum

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Aziza Osman, El Bana
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The main aim of this study was to understand the role of displaced people in the transmission dynamics of malaria parasite in rural areas around Khartoum. Three displaced people camps namely, El Salam, EIBaraka, and Jebel-Aulia camps were selected for the present study. The total populations of the tribes as well as the socio-economic factors of these displaced people were studied. Tested Polymerase Chain Reaction per method that amplifies genus and species specific sequences present within the small subunit of ribosomal ribonucleic acid (ssrRNA) genes of the four human malaria parasites, P.falciparum, P. vivax, P.malariae and P.ovale was used for the diagnosis of malaria .A total of 147 finger prick blood samples were collected and preserved on Whattman (3) filter paper and subjected to DNA extraction, PCR amplification .The PCR amplified products are differentiated by their fragment sizes after electrophoresis on 1.5% agarose gel. The fragment size within the different species were: 205 by for P. falcipaum, 144, 120 and 800 by for P. molariae, P. vivax and P. ovale, respectively. The results were compared to those microscopically diagnosed. The prevalence of malaria using the PCR was found to be significantly higher compared to microscopy. By InJcroscopy infection rate was found to be 85.9%, 74.5%, 59.2% in comparison to 97.9%, 94.1 % and 91.8% detected by PCR in EI Salam,Jebel-Aulia and El Baraka, respectively. In this study mixed infection was found to be higher than expected and was detected only by the PCR. Mixd infection did not show any variation between the different camps. P. falciparum was found to be the dominant species followed by mixed infection of P. falciparum and P. malariae, P. malariae and few cases of mixed infection of P. falciparum and P. vivax, no P.ovale was reported. The prevelance of malaria did not vary significantly between the displaced people and those who live in the neighbouring villages. In contrast to this a significant difference was observed (P=0.04) with the different tribes in the infection of P. falciparum and P. malariae mixed infections and it was found to be higher in Southern and Western tribes, rare in Central tribes and nil in the Northern tribes. The present study showed that the longer the stay in the villages the higher the risk of getting P. falciparum infection.
Prevalence of the Human Malaria Parasites among the Displaced People Rural Areas