Evaluation and Upgrading of Solid Waste Management in Khartoum State

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Babiker Ahmed Babiker, Abdalla
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This study was conducted in Khartoum state, the main objective of which was to evaluate and upgrade solid waste management in Khartoum state. The data were collected using different methods; questionnaires, waste sorting and segregation, field observations regarding transfer station and landfill sites, and waste management activities within the localities during the last three years. Khartoum state is divided into three areas (Khartoum, Bahri and Omdurman), 200 households from each area were selected with a total of 600 household representing the four residential classes, for which questionnaires were filled and waste to be studied was collected daily, for consecutive seven days. The daily produced waste was determined and studied. The daily produced and collected waste was studied regarding means and efficiency of collection, transportation, segregation, weights and rates of generation, densities, composition, monthly variations, and environmental consequences such as odour, fly breeding and prevalence of waste related diseases. The generated waste features were found to depend mostly on standard of living. The study results revealed that the waste management service provider turnover and changes is very high leading to instability of service quality, with poor coordination among different governmental bodies, absence of agreed unified reporting and monitoring system. The plastic bags and sacks were the most common waste container used, family members were the most who take waste outside in the scheduled collection day, there is variation in collection frequency within different classes from once to three times a week, charge for waste collection is accepted by the residents, and the majority prefer morning waste collection. Waste generation rates revealed 0.3 – 0.5 kg /capita/day, with density 174 – 221 kg/m3with a total amount for the state 2145.6 ‐3576.1 tons/day. Organic and plastic waste showed the highest percentage of waste constituents 30 – 38% and 13.7 – 19.7% respectively. The state has three transfer stations with operational, health and environmental problems. The stations have weak compaction rate (1:1.1) and have many health, environmental and operational problems. The truck average operational efficiency is 3.6 trip/truck/day. The state has three disposal sites, one in each area with no restriction or special handling for hazardous and health care waste to enter, The most important study recommendations are the necessity for unification of waste management activities within the state including standards and specification for the service needed including manpower, collection vehicles and quality of service. The structure of waste management administration should be revised, waste reduction and recycling programs are important, cost effectiveness studies are needed, the type of waste and vehicles used for waste collection should be considered before transfer station installation, clear planning for better use of land fill for long and short term sites is required, there is a need for further studies regarding hazardous and health care waste, finally state future planning and strategies for waste management is very essential.
215 page
Evaluation, Upgrading, Solid ,Waste Management, Khartoum State