The Prevalence and canal System configuration of the maxillary second premolar in Khartoum State Residents

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Ibrahim, Somia
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Successful endodontic therapy depends to a large extent on the thorough mechanical cleansing of each root canal, this make knowledge of anatomy and morphology of teeth coupled with the potential for variations in the root canal system is mandatory. Moreover, there is a divergence in facts to the root canal anatomy of human permanent teeth. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and root canal anatomy of maxillary second premolar in a sample of Sudanese population. For this purpose, 100 extracted maxillary second premolars and 25 clinical radiographs collected from three cities of Khartoum state (Khartoum, Omdurman, Bahary), were studied. The age group was ranged from 15-45 years. These teeth were radiographed, cross-sectioned and their root canal morphology was recorded. Then root and root canal lengths were measured. Also, the external anatomy was observed in regard to the curvature, number of roots and shape of the canals in cross-sections. The data obtained from this study revealed that the number of roots were 82.2% one- rooted, 16.8% two-rooted and 1% three-rooted. According to the curvature 30.7% were straight, 68.3% curved with 55.4% curved distally, 17.6% curved mesially and 10.8% curved in other directions (bucully and lingually). According to Vertucci (1974) classification and using the radiographic method, the percentage of types of canals are found to be 22.8 % type I; 10.9 % type II; 6.9% type III; 35.6% type IV; 15.8 % type V; 5.9% type VI; 1% type VII; 1% type VIII. The presence of the accessory canals were detected in 6.9% of the specimens, while the horizontal interconnection and delta were noted in 1% and 10.9%; respectively.According to the sectioning technique, the findings were number of root canals in 47% of the specimens with one-canal, 52% with two canals and 1% with three canals. The types of root canals were 23.8% type I; 11.9% type II; 6.9% type III; 35.6% type IV; 14.9% typeV; 5% type VI; 1% type VII and 1% type VIII. The presence of accessory canals and horizontal interconnection were not detected in any of the specimens by this method, but the apical delta was found in 1% of the specimens. The average of the root canal length was measured from a tracing paper and was found to be 14.01 mm ± 1.72 mm, in roots with one canal the average was 13.98 mm & in roots with two canals the average was ( for the buccal canal 13.99 mm, for the lingual canal 14.06 mm), the average length of the canal and root canal as measured by an endodontic ruler were 21.4mm and 20.7mm, respectively. The average of the maxillary second premolar angulation was found to be 11º ± 4º. The prevalence of the canal system configurations of the maxillary second premolar in Sudanese sample population showed that 82.2 % were onerooted, 52 % have two root canals, 69% of the specimens were curved and most of them (55.4%) are curved distally. According to Vertucci (1974) classification(appendix 3), the findings by both the radiographic and the sectioning techniques indicate that type IV have the highest percentage (35.6 %) while type VIII have the lowest percentage (1%). The presence of accessory canals was 6.9 %, the delta were 10.9%, horizontal interconnection was 1% by the radiographic technique and the presence of delta was 1 % by the sectioning technique. The shape of the cross section of the canal at the cervical area were oval and it tends to be round as it tapered toward the apex in 65 % of the specimens. Radiographically in the bucco-lingual view, it appears thread-shape in the majority of the specimens (97.2 %). The canal have two apical foramina n (64%) of the specimens and one foramen in (36%)of the specimen. Results shows similarities and differences with other studies, which are all conducted in a Caucasian populations that needs more studies to be confirmed in Sudan
The Prevalence and canal System configuration of the maxillary second premolar in Khartoum State Residents