Phenotypic Characteristics and Genetic Diversity of Sudanese indigenous Canines

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Ammar Mohamed Elbagir Ibrahim
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This study is composed of four parts the first part aims to study the growth performance and phenotypic characteristics of two Sudanese canines (Kababeesh and Blue Nile dogs) compared with the Saluki and German shepherd dogs (G.S.D). Although both experimental dog types could be classified as medium, they look smaller in size and weight than the G.S.D. Also the Kababeesh dog type was significantly heavier and larger than the Blue Nile dog which was similar in weight to the Saluki dog breed. Moreover, the variation among the Kababeesh dog type was larger than that among the Blue Nile type which indicates greater genetic conservation and greater uniformity within the Blue Nile dogs which predicts less potentiality in genetic improvement during selection process in the next generations compared with the Kababeesh type. The results also show the growth period was longer in experimental canines (12- 14 months) compared with the control breeds (10- 12 months). The second part aims to study the origins and genetic diversity of three dog types collected from River Nile State, North Kordofan State and Blue Nile State, North, West and South east of Sudan, respectively. The mtDNA samples of the Sudanese dogs were aligned with 6 samples taken from Telomian dogs (Malaysian breed) and ancient wolves’ samples from different regions of the world. The results show a close relation between the three Sudanese dog types, although the Blue Nile type seemed to be more conserved compared with the other two types. Results show some relation between the Telomian and the Sudanese dogs; moreover, the Asian wolves seemed to be more related to the Sudanese dog samples compared with the American and European wolf samples, which implies the Asian origins of the Sudanese dogs. This is reminiscent of the Asian origin postulated for Sudanese zebu cattle. Moreover, the Sudanese dogs’ IV samples were distributed in 11 haplotypes, two of which defined the North Kordofan and the Blue Nile dogs, respectively. The third part of the study dealt with the genetic basis of Leishmania sensitivity in endogenous dogs in Gadarif and Blue Nile states which are endemic areas eastern and south east of Sudan, respectively. The study investigated five genes (NRAMP1, DLA, IFN -γ, TBX, and iNOS) and found a strong association of the disease with the TBX21 gene (P value = 0.002500 and 0.0008 in the Gadarif and Blue Nile dogs, respectively), and a weak association with the iNOS gene (P value = 0.011499 and 0.0265497 the Gadarif and Blue Nile dogs, respectively). The final part studied the trainability and learning capabilities of the Kababeesh Sudanese dog type. Eleven inviduals were exposed to a training program designed by the Police Dogs School in Khartoum. The percentage of success of the first training phase-in the parental generation is 63.6%, which (7 dogs out of the 11), those seven individuals were joined the second phase and 5 individuals out of those 7 which equivalent to 71.1% succeeded in reaching the final phase but none of the parental generation individuals succeeded in finishing the training program successfully. This successes appeared in the first generation is most probably due to the first generation exposue of the pre training sessions, compared with the parental generation. All individuals of the offspring generation (7 puppies) successfully passed the first and second training phases and 4 of them finished the training program successfully which equivalent to57.1%. These dogs showed a promising potential in the police work field provided they are availed of the proper environment and a scientific breeding program to enhance their behavioural traits
Cuspids - Sudan; German shepherd dog - Sudan; Saluki - Sudan; Sudanese Canines - Phenotypic Characteristics - Sudan;Sudanese Canines - Genetic Diversity - Sudan; Sudanese Canines - Growth Performance - Sudan;Animal Genetics and Breeding