Cultural Practices and Post Harvest Handling, Affecting Seed Yield and Quality of Volatile Oils of Anise (Pimpinella anisum L.) and Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill)

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Enaam Ismail Abdalla Ibrahim
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University of khartoum
An experiment was conducted for two consecutive winter Seasons (2001/02 and 2002/03) in Medicinal and aromatic plants research institute Farm at Shambat - Sudan. to investigate the effect of fertilization, umbel stages, packing materials and storage on quality and quantity of seeds yield and volatile oil content of two strains of anise (Pimpinella anisum L.) Sudanese (Su) and Syrian (s) anise, and sweet fennel (Foeniculum vulgare mill). The treatments consisted of three fertilizer types, i.e. control , NPK and chicken manure (Organic fertilizer); three stages of umbel picking, namely stage one the umbels were picked at half length size, stage 2 at full length green seeds and stage 3 at full grown seeds. Four different bags (Polythene bags, paper bags, aluminum foil bags and cotton bags), as well as storage conditions (storage at room temperature and in the Refrigerator at 4 C° the storage period was twelve months . Results indicated that vegetative growth and yield components were highly significant influenced by fertilizer application. Addition of chicken manure gave higher values of most of the parameters studied in both seasons. Effect of umbel stage of anise (Su) and anise (S) revealed that volatile oil content significantly decreased before and after maturity in both seasons. The highest values of oil content resulted from stage 2 followed by stage 3 and then 1. The oil content of anise (Su) was not significantly affected by the different fertilizer treatment in both seasons; where as anise (S) was significantly affected by fertilizer application. Fertilizer application had no significant effect on volatile oil content of sweet fennel and also there was no significant difference between the different stages of umbel maturity. The effect of different bags on oil content of anise (Su) and anise (S) seeds can be stored at room temperature; there were no significant differences among the different packing materials in both seasons and both duration of the storage. On the other hand oil content extracted from fennel seeds after six and twelve months stored at room temperature in different bags were not affected by fertilizer application. There was small variation among the values of oil content in both seasons. However there was no significant difference among packing materials in both seasons. The effect of storage time on Anise (Su) and Anise (S) seeds resulted that volatile oil content was less, when the seeds were left at room temperature for a period of 12 months. The loss of volatile oil increased with the increase of the period of storage, in both seasons. While the amount of essential oil of fennel seeds stored in different bags for 12 months gave similar values before and after storage, during both seasons and both duration of storage. The oil content obtained from anise (Su) and anise (S) seeds which were stored in cold condition were also affected by the period of storage. The percentage of volatile oil was decreased after six months storage. While the volatile oil obtained from fennel seeds gave the same results before and after storage.
A Thesis Submitted to the University of Khartoum in Partial Fulfillment of The Requirements For The Degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Agriculture
Harvest Handling volatile oil fertilization Anise Sudanese Anise Syrian Pimpinella anisum L. Fennel plant Foeniculum vulgare Mill Horticulture University of Khartoumt
Enaam Ismail Abdalla Ibrahim, Cultural Practices and Post Harvest Handling, Affecting Seed Yield and Quality of Volatile Oils of Anise (Pimpinella anisum L.) and Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill). – Khartoum : University of Khartoum, 2006. - 193 P. : illus., 28 cm., Ph.D.